Выпуклый анализ и его приложения
This paper is the first attempt at quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Soviet literature on general equilibrium theory in 1960—1990s. We divide the papers into four subgroups: von Neumann—Gale class of models and equilibrium growth; Arrow—Debreu class of models; disequilibrium theory; and other branches of general equilibrium theory. Bibliometric analysis shows that von Neumann—Gale class of models was most popular in the Soviet mathematical economics.
The review of Johanna Bockman’s ‘Markets in the Name of Socialism: The Left- Wing Origins of Neoliberalism’ focuses the relationships between Western and Soviet economic sciences. Bockman emphasizes that historically there was no insurmountable gap between the analysis of market and planned economies: mathematical analysis made Soviet and Western economists similar to each other. For some period, economists on both sides of the ‘iron curtain’ were intuitively following the same path without any opportunity to communicate with each other. After the political environment changed, Soviet and Western economists found a lot of common ground and began to perceive each other as colleagues. However, this only refers to the scientists who were mathematical economists, and has nothing to do with those whose expertise was bound to political economy. One such scientist was Leonid Kantorovich – the undisputed leader of the mathematical branch in the Soviet Union. Intense correspondence and warm personal relations between Kantorovich and Tjalling Koopmans, who shared the 1975 Nobel Prize in economics, was a perfect illustration of those emerging international links. Eventually Soviet mathematical economists managed to overcome their isolation from the worldwide scientific community. Moreover, their works were quite in line with contemporary views on what true economists should do. Again, it only refers to a few Soviet scholars, but it was enough not to be neglected. Bockman’s book is discussed in the context of studies in economic thought. The review contains a short description of Philip Mirowski’s ‘Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science’. It highlights the similarities between Bockman’s and Mirowski’s approaches, as well as parallels the development of economic thought in the Soviet Union and the West. Unlike the majority of books devoted to modern economic thought and mostly focused on the Western neoclassical mainstream, the advantage of Bockman’s book is that he employs economic literature from socialist countries including the Soviet Union. The book also has high practical value as it extends its discussion to reform experience in two countries – Hungary and Yugoslavia. By closely studying these experiences, Bockman shows that Yugoslav and Hungarian reformers criticized both Soviet state socialism and American free-market capitalism and invented a model which could be referred to as decentralized market socialism.
Generalizations of the classical concept of a convex function have been proposed in various fields such as economics, management science, engineering,statistics and applied sciences during the second half of this century.
The present volume constitutes the proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Generalized Convexity in Pecs, Hungary, August 31 - September 2, 1992. The proceedings are edited by the organizers of the workshop, Sandor Komlosi, Janus Pannonius University, Pecs, Tamas Rapcsak, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest and Siegfried Schaible, University of California, Riverside. Papers at the conference were carefully refereed and a selection of them is published herewith.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.