Настольная книга активиста. Для представителей инициативных групп и общественных движений
Article considered the Commissioner’s for Human Rights (Ombuds) activity in the democratic citizenship education sphere which is incorporated in its responsibilities and implementation of the social enlightening/prophylactic functions. Research questions are touching 1) the role of the institute in implementing state tasks in citizenship and political socialization; 2) analysis of the contemporary political situation factors influencing citizenship education and actors’ positioning in the field; 3) existing practices, methods of activity, adequate mechanisms and technologies for Ombud’s effectiveness. Empirical part developed on Ombuds’ materials from regions of Russia at the period between 2001 and 2011 years and case study of the Saint-Petersburg contemporary situation. Contextually found that there are problematic points of civic education as well as low usage of non- and informal social technologies of citizenship education, due to situation characterized by absence of interest within state institutions toward citizenship of the democratic sample, as well as contr-reformation stereotypic “patriotism” model promotion by state within the ideology of the «specific way of Russia».
Civil control is a key mechanism of counteracting and suppressing corruption and represents one of the main functions of civil society. The first phase of civil control consists in systematic monitoring of decisions and actions of public power organs and of their functionaries; the second phase - in social expert examination of such decisions and actions; and the final phase - in public presentation of the results of the said expert examination to the authorities and society. In the working of the civil control mechanism, the function of the driving belt is realized by mass media.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.