Власть, бизнес, общество в регионах: неправильный треугольник
This article focuses on comparative analysis of child benefits paid in Russia at the regional level. The research is based on methods widely used by Alfred Kahn, Sheila Kamerman, John Ditch, Jonathan Bradshaw et al. for comparative analysis of child benefit systems in different countries. Although method of model families is not free from some weaknesses (because it gives information on benefits that families should receive rather than information on benefits that they actually get) still it provides recent data on characteristics, similarities and differences of child benefit systems of Russian regions. Previously child benefit packages in Russia were analyzed by several researches – Lilia Ovcharova, Daria Popova, etc. The author contributed through conducting statistical study of сhild benefit packages paid at the regional level. These packages include all transfers targeted at families with children (except of lump-sum benefits which do not significantly affect family welfare). It is stated that model families differ in earnings level and demographic structure (couples or single mothers, with different number of children). The article comments on quantitative characteristics of child benefit packages for a set of model families from 37 regions. Comparative analysis of the level of child benefits (in absolute terms as well as to the minimum subsistence level and average wage) allows to determine which types of families are first to gain from regional child benefits systems and which remain vulnerable to the risk of poverty.
Usually in rich countries life expectancy is higher than in poor countries. We checked whether this is true for the regions of Russia.
The object of the study was data for 2010, which is the year of the last population census. We used life expectancy at birth as longevity measure and the value of gross domestic product per capita in US dollars at purchasing power parity is used as the welfare measure.
The analysis is based on a comparison of regional data with the Preston curve that describes relationship between per capita GDP and life expectancy at birth. The curve was also determined for 2010 based on data from 57 countries, where population statistics are suitable for the calculation of life table.
We found that life expectancy in Russia is substantially below the level that the Preston's model predicts for Russian on the basis of the Russia’s GDP per capita. In 2010, the difference between the model and real life expectancy was 8.7 years and was the highest among the 57 countries involved in the calculation.
The dependence of life expectancy on economic situation in regions is practically nonexistent. The illusion of interdependence exists because Moscow stands out among other regions with high GDP and high life expectancy. However life expectancy in 2010 in Moscow was significantly lower than the level predicted by the Preston's model. In authors; opinion, the lack of communication is explained by the fact that in regions with high GDP, the level of economic inequality is also high. High incomes of a small part of the population can raise the average level of economic indicators in the region, but a lower mortality in a small group has little effect on life expectancy of total population.
This article is devoted to the study of factors of interregional migration of the population in Russia. The analysis is carried out the data on migration of 2011–2016, collected by Rosstat under the new rules of statistical accounting, which led to a doubling of the volume of internal migration. The results show that motives for modern internal migrants in Russia are changed with comparison with results before 2011. For modern migrants, regional economic factors such as average per capita incomes and housing market indicators are not so much important, as the indicators of quality of life, infrastructure and ecology. Poor regions don’t participate in intensive migration: migrants don’t want to move to poor regions and don’t leave them. Resource regions have become less attractive. Moving motives for modern migrants are more associated with indicators of the origin region. The most intensive migration occurs mainly between regions with similar in quality factors and the standards of living.
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
Ethnic structure of the Russia's population is considered taking into account the results of the 2015 population microcensus, distribution of ethnicities by regions of Russia, indicators for ethnically mixed families and inter-ethnic distancies.
The article deals with a method for assessing the technological potential of a region through the calculation of indices of economic complexity and technological proximity. Approbation of the approach is carried out on the basis of the regions of Russia