Россия в XXI веке: модель устойчивого развития
Economic growth in developing economies and the transition of large population groups to the middle class lead to a surge in energy consumption and hence in greenhouse gas emissions. The solution to such issues as poverty and inequality comes therefore into conflict with climate change mitigation. The existing international climate change regime does not address this contradiction. The existing international system of climate regulation does not address this contradiction. Today, the global climate governance relies on the estimates of aggregate emissions of countries not considering the level of development and the distribution of emissions among income groups within each country. Emissions from production are being monitored, while consumption-related emissions, albeit known be experts, rarely underlie decision-making. Meanwhile, income distribution has a higher impact on consumption-based emissions in comparison to the production-based ones. Decisions on the emission regulation are made at the national level by countries with different development agendas where the climate change mitigation often gets less priority in comparison to other socio-economic objectives.
The paper proposes a set of principles and specific mechanisms that can link both climate change and inequality within a single policy framework. Firstly, we highlight the importance of modification of the global emission monitoring system for the sake of accounting for emissions from consumption (rather than production) by income groups. Secondly, we suggest the introduction of a new redistribution system to address climate change including a "fine" imposed on households with the highest levels of emissions. Such a system follows the principles of progressive taxation but underlies climate mitigation objectives and can rather be treated not as taxation of high incomes but as payment for negative externality. Thirdly, we outline the need for adjustment of climate finance criteria: priority should be given to projects aimed at 1) reducing the carbon intensity of consumption of the social groups entering the middle class, and 2) at adaptation of the poorest population groups to the climate change. The special role in the implementation of these principles may belong to BRICS countries which could use it as a chance for proactive transition to the inclusive low-carbon development.
This article summarizes the European experience in supply chain management in the organic food sector. At the same time, the specifics of supply chain management in this sector consist not only in providing a short the shelf life of products, but also in maintaining consumer preferences for organic food. Based on the analysis of the Russian organic food market, as well as a survey of agricultural producers, recommendations for the sustainable development of this sector of the agro-industrial complex are given. In addition, as a result, of the survey, their readiness to produce organic products was identified and characterized. Sustainable development of organic agriculture should be formed on the basis of taking into account the features and preferences from both the demand side and the producer side. Therefore, tools of governmental and non-governmental organizations should be addressed not only to consumers, but also to potential producers of organic products, which are interested in passing organic certification.
Recommendations for teachers on the organization of the educational process based on the case “Tigrus - more than business” and examples of its solution
In this paragraph, the authors focus on analysing all the factors related to the accumulation of human potential and the integration of new knowledge in rural communities on Altai Krai’s Kulunda steppe that are largely responsible for the sustainable socio-economic development of this area. The analysis leads them to conclude that the understanding of the term ‘sustainable development’ in the directives of the krai and municipal administrations should be expanded in order to allow for the implementation of a number of measures. Those aimed at the socio-economic development of the region to ensure a specific quality of life for all generations in rural communities, both contemporary and future, that would involve the full realization of their human potential.
The article examines key trends of the nowadays politics, economics and ideology from the point of view of the strategy of sustainable development. The authors analyze such phenomenon as the development of conceptual models of Post-capitalism, the decline of the middle class and liberal democracy, the crisis of ideologies and the rise of pseudo-ideology - populism. One of the central conclusions of the article is that the classical model of sustainable development proposed by the UN 30 years ago, including ecology, economics and social sphere, is no longer able to cover the whole complexity of what is happening. It should include at least two components - politics and ideology. In this case, we can talk about the formation of a multidimensional and favorable environment for moving towards the goals of sustainable development. Otherwise, the implementation of any global strategies (including the sustainable development) in socially fragmented, de-ideologised, crisis-ridden social systems seems unrealistic. In the context of sustainable development, the crisis of global governance, as well as the phenomenon of the integration systems that can assert themselves in the global space of political power, is rethought. From the point of view of science methodology, there is a need for further convergence between humanitarian disciplines studying sustainable development.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.