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Reflecting the main mental trends of the present socio-cultural situation, modern folklore is characterized by its inhomogeneity. In most cases it is determined by the mixture of urban and rural traditions caused by technocratic progress and the process of urbanization. City in modern folklore is treated as a system of interconnected mental and cultural trends, traditions. Cultural knowledge, accepted in a folk society, is transferred with the help of folklore texts of various genres. Our attention is focused on the genre of legend, defined as a narration, describing possible and real past events. In accordance with the requirements of the genre, a possible event is depicted as a real one. In the texts of legends a mythological element is often represented, which determines their semiotic, axiological and pragmatic orientation. One of the main functions of a legend is didactic, due to which the behavioral algorithm in a particular situation can be stated. The aim of the paper is to describe the structure of urban space reflected in the folklore texts of legends about Tomsk.
Second half of 19th century–1945 was the period of drastic changes in Japanese society, the time of building the nation-state and the Great Japanese Empire, based on the unity of all Japanese people. Political reforms and the ideology of this period are well investigated. However, there are few studies of how the Japanese themselves and people's worldview have changed. The article focuses on the emotional transformations of the Japanese during this period and based on official historical documents, writings of publicists, poetry and prose. One consequence of such a rapid changes was, in particular, the dramatic increase in number of mental illnesses and suicides during the Meiji period. Shared exaltation was a characteristic feature of the era, the most important government decisions were made on a sudden impulse. Literature (especially the new shintaishi poetry contributed to the popular feelings excitement, and openly promoted xenophobia. The belief in the superiority of the Japanese spirit over matter dictated decisions that were insane in military-practical terms. Thus, in 1941 Japan attacked the main US naval base in the Pacific – Pearl Harbor. The decision that led to the collapse of the empire.