Вредные вещества в различных средах и методы оценки их воздействия на экосистемы. Методическая разработка по дисциплине «Экологические риски и защита от них»
Sociology has been confronted since several decades with theoretical and methodological challenges to contribute to the analysis of changing forms of interaction of society and nature and environmental problems resulting from that. In the classical way of academic science to react to new research problems, by driving specialization further, a new subdiscipline of environmental sociology was established. Environmental sociology in Western countries developed a research agenda with five themes as described by the American sociologist Fred Buttel: interaction of nature and society, environmental awareness, environmental movements, political economy, technological risks. Today environmental sociology is confronted with the analysis of problems formulated in ecological terminology as global environmental change, including phenomena of anthropogenic climate change, reduction of biodiversity and land use change. It has meanwhile lost its pioneering role to interdisciplinary ecology that drives, e.g. as new social ecology, a rapidly progressing theoretical analysis and reflection of nature-society interaction in late modernity under notions of «social-ecological systems», «societal relations to nature» and «societal metabolism». Even natural-scientific ecology has, under the impression of rapid environmental change for the first time developed a theory of society to analyze the social and environmental changes in the historical epoch called «anthropocene» for which Western industrialization has been the starting phase. An interdisciplinary opening of sociology in theoretical reflection seems required to regain intellectual strength. Some theoretical and methodological questions of this boundary crossing are discussed further, a synthesis of sociological and ecological knowledge and connections with the neighboring fields of environmental economics and environmental anthropology.
A brief description is given for the natural conditions and economic activity on a local drainage basin of the Cheboksary Reservoir (less the Oka Basin). The main principles of a new version of landscape-hydrological method used to evaluate nutrient runoff from the drainage basin into water bodies are given. The article presents the values of the runoff of these elements into the Cheboksary Reservoir calculated taking into account the effect of the drainage basin and anthropogenic load from mineral and organic fertilizers applied on agricultural fields and the input of wastes onto the drainage basin from the population that have no access to sewage system.
To assess the ecological and geochemical state of the anthropogenic landscapes of the Kursk region, the natural landscapes of the Kursk Biosphere Station (KBS) have been used as background for many years. However, in the absence of river and groundwater runoff, the KBS plain landscapes receive pollutants with air migration, in which transboundary transport and the influence of local pollution sources play the main role. In this regard, over the past 5 years, geochemical monitoring of the snow and soil cover has been carried out on the KBS territory to assess the content of chemical elements in it, and thereby confirm the status of the KBS natural landscapes as background. Geochemical studies of 2013-2019 showed that during this period, as a result of emissions from enterprises of the southern industrial region of Kursk, an increase in Pb concentrations is observed in the snow of the KBS landscapes by a factor of 29; Cd, Zn, Co, Sn, respectively, 13, 9, 6, 5 times; Nb, Cr, B, V, Ni - 2-4 times. The regional and transboundary transfer of air masses is associated with the constant supply of Be to the snow cover, the positive dynamics of Zr, Ag, W. At the same time, the anthropogenic impact on the KBS landscapes over the past 5 years has not led to a change in the natural content of chemical elements in chernozem soils. The natural landscapes of the KBS in terms of the content of heavy metals in soils can function as background landscapes.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.