Бедность и льготы: мифы и реальность
The paper focuses on the processes of social policy reforms, which are determined by the intentions of neoliberal ideologists to rationalize the relationships between the citizens and state. A trend towards rationalization was partially expressed by the new legislationon reorganization of responsibilities between the levels of authorities and monetization of privileges. Another aspect of these quite contradictory challenges is modernization of social services system. During the last few years some experiments took place in this area, in that number those supported by the international foundations and expert groups. Such innovations are directed towards the increase of effectiveness of social services as well as their managerialization. New rationalized standards often encounter the existing practices of performance and evaluation of quality and effectiveness of social services, as well as motivation of staff and methods of management, including managing quality of social services.
In the article there is analyzed modern stage and value of sphere of services in contemporary economics. There are reported main approaches to designing integrated theory of services. The special attention is paid to social services. It is proposed a new complex approach to the definition of social service as an object of managerial impact.
Questions of differentiation of the population on a level of incomes in Republic Mary El are considered. Parameters of a variation and structure of the basic monetary incomes are analyses. Classification of administrative areas on the parameters describing incomes of the population is lead. The analysis of territorial distinctions of the population on levels of incomes is given. For more in-depth study of interrelation of the parameters describing differentiation of incomes of the population of Republic, on everyone allocated cluster are constructed regression models of a degree of influence of the parameters reflecting age structure of the population on a level of monthly average wages, pensions and social payments.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.