Les Universités russes: sont-elles compétitives?
Modernisation, innovation, économie de la connaissance : des mots d’ordre que les autorités russes ne cessent de marteler sous les présidences successives de Vladimir Poutine et de Dmitri Medvedev. Les universités sont au coeur de cette stratégie d’Etat, qui doit permettre au pays de ne plus dépendre exclusivement de la rente énergétique. L’enjeu est aussi de replacer l’enseignement supérieur russe au sein du marché mondial de l’éducation, en attirant des étudiants étrangers et en revalorisant l’image du pays. Mais ces ambitions nationales et internationales sont-elles encore à la portée des établissements supérieurs russes éprouvés par les années de transition post-communiste, longtemps sous-financées, se partageant des étudiants de moins en moins nombreux ? La réforme profonde, engagée au milieu des années 2000, atteindra-t-elle son objectif de placer quelques universités russes dans le Top-100 des classements internationaux ? A travers six monographies, cet ouvrage propose une analyse de la situation et des perspectives de quelques-unes des meilleures universités nationales (Institut de l’Acier et des Alliages de Moscou, Haut Collège d’Économie, Université technique Bauman, Université du pétrole et du gaz Goubkine, Université fédérale de l’Oural, Nouvelle Université russe et Institut Juridique International). Les auteures, trois chercheuses russes et françaises, se sont appuyées sur des entretiens afin d’appréhender au mieux les transformations en cours au sein des universités russes et leurs perspectives.
In the last decades, with the advent of mass open online courses (MOOCs), a qualitative leap in the development of the world education market has taken place. Free open access to the educational content of the world's leading universities, an opportunity to study anywhere at any time, proctoring tools which allow to identify an individual while he passes exams online - all this led to almost unlimited possibilities for educational choice of an individual, but entailed serious challenges for higher schools in the world. Universities are forced to revise existing teaching methods, improve educational technologies, search for new methods of teaching, and redistribute resources in favor of the most effective models of the educational process, combined with the use of online courses as a part of the educational program. In this regard, a comparative analysis of various models of using mass open online courses in the educational process of the university is of particular relevance. In the framework of our research, existing cases of using massive open online courses in the educational programs of various universities all over the world, including the experience of leading Russian universities, were studied. The characteristics of the models included a description of the following processes: choosing an online course, training using online courses, tutoring support during online learning, controlling the results of training, proctoring and fixing learning outcomes in the basic educational programs. Economic consequences of applying models in the educational process of the university are a key point in comparing the online learning models.
Unlike traditional teachers, tutors now are much less able to confine their practice to the classroom setting. Herein, we address the challenges of actual tutoring practice at one Master’s degree program comprising offline and online learning activities along with student work placements. Building on the autoethnography and narrative analysis we highlight core themes structuring tutoring experience. We examined the challenges we met. We offer suggestions for tutors supporting students in a blended learning environment, and we argue acknowledgment of different roles and strategies applied by tutors across learning contexts make them more productive and less vulnerable towards conflicting messages of other actors involved in instructional communication.
This paper describes student research field trips as a new educational tool. These are intense, short-term trips by students and their teachers to do field work. Field work itself is not an innovation, but one of the main approaches to discover and understand the world. Geography, ethnography, and archeology are mainly based on field work. Some of the elements of field work such as travel and collaborative work are also known as traditional approaches in education, for example the “Grand Tour” of young aristocrats around Europe in 17th and 18th centuries, which was a final and necessary part of their education; the value of collective, shared responsibility, and common tasks in the theory and practice of pedagogy of Soviet educator and social worker Anton Makarenko; or even the traditions of the Pioneer and Scouting movements in the 20th century. A better term might be “an old-new method in education” and it could be seen as an answer to the extremely fast changes occurring in higher education. In this case the new (or “old-new”) tool does not try to follow these rapid changes but does at its own pace. In the new educational reality of the massification of higher education, global educational migration, and MOOCs, they are like the slow food movement or small craft industries in a world of fast food corporations and mass production.
The present study is aimed at exploring the role of universities in socio-economic development of a region, undertaking a comparative analysis of efficiency assessment models of universities’ integration into solving regional development tasks in order to determine a set of the most relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators of such assessment and outlining its main stages.
The key method of the empirical study is the method of expert interview. Statistical information, published regional development strategies and materials of applied research on similar topics were also used.
Based on the empirical materials obtained by the authors, major roles that a university can play in the regional development were identified and the ratio of a region’s strategy to a university as well as the peculiarities of its participation in the formation of a regional strategy was considered. The current and potential mechanisms of integration, existing and possible conditions for cooperation and the relevant forms of its organization were outlined; the quality and quantity of the resources and competencies that a university possesses for meeting regional tasks and the possibilities of their improvement were assessed. As a result, there were highlighted 2 groups of factors characterizing a university’s inclusion in solving socio-economic challenges of a region’s development – quantitative and qualitative; there were suggested indicators which determine them and there were defined the main stages of the efficiency assessment of such integration.
When comparing the results concluded with the materials of other research proposals, an additional group of qualitative factors was formed and a previously unidentified group of administrative and information indicators was identified among the quantitative ones.
The results of the study can be recommended to universities and regional authorities to create an effective model of cooperation in the interest of the regional development; the results of performance assessment of higher education organizations according to the proposed algorithm can be used to justify the efficiency of investments in the workings of one or the other university.
The chapter provides an analysis of the Russian system of higher education in a comparative perspective, including massification and social inequality issues.
This book contains the proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Supported Education (CSEDU 2012) which was organized and sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and technically co-sponsored by SPEE (Portuguese Society for Engineering Education), IGIP (International Society for Engineering Education), ROLE (Responsive Open Learning Environments) and IFIP TC3 (International Federation for Information Processing - Technical Committee 3 - ICT and Education).
CSEDU has become an annual meeting place for presenting and discussing learning paradigms, best practices and case studies that concern innovative computer-supported learning strategies, institutional policies on technology-enhanced learning including learning from distance, supported by technology. The Web is currently a preferred medium for distance learning and the learning practice in this context is usually referred to as e-learning or technology-enhanced learning. CSEDU 2012 is expected to give an overview of the state of the art in technology-enhanced learning and to also outline upcoming trends and promote discussions about the education potential of new learning technologies in the academic and corporate world.
This conference brings together researchers and practitioners interested in methodologies and applications related to the education field. It has five main topic areas, covering different aspects of Computer Supported Education, including "Information Technologies Supporting Learning", "Learning/Teaching Methodologies and Assessment", "Social Context and Learning Environments", "Domain Applications and Case Studies" and "Ubiquitous Learning". We believe the proceedings, demonstrate new and innovative solutions, and highlight technical problems in each field that are challenging and worthwhile.
CSEDU 2012 received 243 paper submissions from 58 countries in all continents. A double-blind review process was enforced, with the help of the 297 experts who are members of the conference program committee, all of them internationally recognized in one of the main conference topic areas. Only 29 papers were selected to be published and presented as full papers, i.e. completed work (10 pages in proceedings / 30' oral presentations). 73 papers, describing work-in-progress, were selected as short papers for 20' oral presentation. Furthermore 37 papers were presented as posters. The full-paper acceptance ratio was thus 12%, and the total oral paper acceptance ratio was less than 42%. These ratios denote a high level of quality, which we intend to maintain and reinforce in the next edition of this conference.
The high quality of the CSEDU 2012 programme is enhanced by three keynote lectures, delivered by distinguished guests who are renowned experts in their fields, including (alphabetically): Joseph Trimmer (Ball State University, United States), David Kaufman (Simon Fraser University, Canada) and Hugh Davis (University of Southampton, United Kingdom).
For the fourth edition of the conference we extended and ensured appropriate indexing of the proceedings of CSEDU including DBLP, INSPEC, EI and Thomson Reuters Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Besides the proceedings edited by SciTePress, a short list of papers presented at the conference will be selected for publication of extended and revised versions in the Journal of Education and Information Technologies. Furthermore, all presented papers will soon be available at the SciTePress digital library.
The conference is complemented with two special sessions, focusing on specialized aspects of computer supported education; namely, a Special Session on Enhancing Student Engagement in e-Learning (ESEeL 2012) and a Special Session on Serious Games on Computer Science Learning (SGoCSL 2012).
Building an interesting and successful program for the conference required the dedicated effort of many people. Firstly, we must thank the authors, whose research and development efforts are recorded here. Secondly, we thank the members of the program committee and additional reviewers for their diligence and expert reviewing. We also wish to include here a word of appreciation for the excellent organization provided by the conference secretariat, from INSTICC, who have smoothly and efficiently prepared the most appropriate environment for a productive meeting and scientific networking. Last but not least, we thank the invited speakers for their invaluable contribution and for taking the time to synthesize and deliver their talks.