Местные сообщества, местная власть и мигранты в Сибири на рубежах XIX–XX и XX–XXI веков
The article will discuss the variety of African migrants’ pathways toward social recognition and success in a Russian megacity by describing and analyzing the experiences of the Ethiopian owners of two establishments in Moscow: a lavish downtown restaurant, and a small café on an international university campus on the city’s outskirts. These cases display various points of both similarity and divergence, but are here regarded as examples of successful African entrepreneurship, each in its own way, contrasting with the usual representation of Africans as passive victims in the receiving society. As background for the analysis we provide information on the changes that have occurred since the breakup of the USSR, and which have impacted on the migrants’ social composition, on their strategies of integration, and on the modes P. 206. of their acceptance by the new sociocultural milieu. The research is based mainly on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the two establishment owners, their employees, and guests conducted in May to June 2012. It reveals the factors that have promoted their successful establishment in the Russian capital as well as their own perceptions of the position of migrants within it.
The article addresses issues of group identity and its religious constituent factor, which is studied through the example of the community of immigrants who came to be known as the Pikhtinsk Golendrs ("Big Hollanders") after settlement in Siberia. The first half of the study comprises an analysis on the basis of bibliographic and field data of the religious status situation upon the arrival of the new settlers in Siberia in the 191 Os and its main changes in the course of the subsequent decades. The second half provides an analysis of the situation today, chiefly on the basis of the field materials of the 2000s. The bottom-line objective is to show how the religious identity of this group's members was transformed and what role it played in the development and stability of the community's group identity.
The article’s authors describe their experiences organizing and conducting field research training of National Research University–Higher School of Economics students over the course of 10 years. Field expeditions are defined by the exposure they give (metropolitan) students to the phenomenology of provincial everyday life. The methodology used is grounded in the principals of qualitative social research. Methods used for the direct (“naive”) observation and description of the features of local public life include case studies, unstructured interviews, and situational conversations with local people. The authors describe five kinds of field expedition practices that they have developed for students: (1) visiting training seminars in addition to the authorized course; (2) field research incorporated into academic study practices; (3) retreats as part of research seminars; (4) summer school expeditions; and (5) sociological research expeditions.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.