Математическое моделирование социальных процессов
We consider the problem of manipulability of social choice rules in the impartial anonymous and neutral culture model (IANC) and provide a new theoretical study of the IANC model, which allows us to analytically derive the difference between the Nitzan-Kelly index in the Impartial Culture (IC) and IANC models. We show in which cases this difference is almost zero, and in which the Nitzan-Kelly index for IANC is the same as for IC. However, in some cases this difference is large enough to cause changes in the relative manipulability of social choice rules. We provide an example of such cases.
This study seeks to analyze how students apply a mathematical modeling skill that was previously learned by solving standard word problems to the solution of word problems with nonstandard contexts. During the course of an experiment involving 106 freshmen, we assessed how well they were able to transfer the mathematical modeling skill that is used to solve standard problems to the solution of nonstandard ones that had an analogous structure. The results of our research show that students had varying degrees of success applying the different stages of modeling depending on whether they were solving a familiar problem (involving near transfer) or one that had an unfamiliar context (involving far transfer): in cases of near transfer, students applied the template formally even though it did not align with the text of the new word problem, which complicated further interpretation. In cases of far transfer, students chose to solve the problem by using an ordinary method of selecting a solution by trial and error in preference to the use of modeling. Thus, the application of the modeling skill as a multistage process is complicated when solving nonstandard problems involving either near or far transfer.
Numerical simulations suggest that a source of thermonuclear neutrons with a high pulse repetition rate and the number of neutrons of ~1017 per pulse, which is required for the development of nuclear-thermonuclear reactors, can be realised in the irradiation of a two-sided conical target simultaneously by a long and short laser pulses with energies of ~1 MJ and 50 kJ and durations of 100 – 250 ns and 0.1 – 1 ns. We consider the feasibility of verifying separate propositions of the proposed conception with the use of existing laser facilities.
The work is devoted to the evaluation of the influence of fundamental science on macroeconomic indicators. The regression model of the specific gross domestic product elasticity is considered with the aim of revealing the dependence between the indicators of innovation and economic development. As a tool for restoring model parameters, a method of entropy-robust estimation based on the maximum entropy principle was developed. The main advantage of this approach is the invariance by measurement error distribution and the likelihood function. The developed model is used to construct a randomized forecast of GDP growth for the next 5 years.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.