Формирование и реализация инфраструктурного потенциала экономики России
The last decade has witnessed significant government focus on service delivery in developing nations like South Africa, Philippines, India and Malaysia. At the forefront of this movement has been the public sector reforms significantly driven by two broad factors: public sector inefficiencies, and liberal economic ideology. This move towards efficient public service delivery in developing nations (versus developed nations) has required a significant shift in institutional thinking and institutional capacity for the governments. It is therefore no surprise that while economic liberalization has been relatively easy to implement, governance reforms towards public service delivery has been significantly more challenging. In this background, this book examines the status of the public service in developing countries, in the sectors of health, infrastructure, labour and marginalized populations, rural economy, and public administration. The chapters, with sector themes, examine the three basic foundations of public policy, namely, courses of action; regulatory measures and issues; and funding structures and priorities, in public service delivery. The book is a multi country, multi sector, perspective. It includes studies from Russian Federation, India, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Fiji, South Africa, Columbia, Philippines, Macedonia, and India. The multi country and multi sector perspective lends itself to the investigation for a comprehensive overall development model. The book will take the lessons from the chapters and use theory to develop and suggest model(s) of development on delivering effective and efficient public service, applicable across countries.
The world has changed significantly because of the active development of scientific and technological advances over the past decade. A new emerging “economic reality” is characterized by the modernization of economic systems, globalization, computerization, informatization, humanization, ecologization, formation of a new model of socio-economic development of human society, etc. These changes require a new approach to the solution of various political, economic and social problems. The present-day economic reality provides a variety of forms and models of economic activity. Each country or region has its unique experience in solving the above-mentioned problems. Nowadays, the Russian economy is in recession. This inevitably has influenced the economic potential of the regions, which has led to worsening of the living standards of the population. In this regard, a review of the model of the regional socio-economic development and redesign of the regional economic policy is must. The formation of the new economy should include new ideas about the sources and factors of the economic development, including the potential of international cooperation, strengthening connection between science and education, knowledge transfer and investment in human capital. This book summarizes the results of the Russian studies in regional economics and aims to solve the following tasks: • to determine institutional peculiarities of the Russian model of the regional development; • to consider the mechanisms of innovative development of the Russian regions; • to analyze the main trends of the regional policy that provides the complex, balanced development of the region; • to analyze structural changes in regional economies in the context of global challenges. This book includes materials of the International Scientific Conference “Economics in the Changing World” held on June 26–27, 2018, at the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University (Kazan, Russia). This conference combines the contributions of leading specialists in the field of v management, territorial development and state, regional and municipal management. It also covers modern trends in the development of economic complexes and firms, economics of innovative processes, social policy, financial analysis, mathematical methods in economic research, etc. The presentations of the conference are grouped into three main categories, which form the basis of the parts of this book. The first part “Regional Economic Development” is devoted to the problems of transport development, agroindustrial complexes, investment policy and formation of methodological approaches to the effective work of small innovative enterprises of regional importance. The leading work “Institutions in the Context of the Regional Development of Russia” by scientists D. Vuković, N. Y. Vlasova and O. T. Ergunova is devoted to the role of the regional development institutions in the socio-economic regional development of the Russian Federation. The authors summarize the experience of managing the regional development institutions. They also conclude that it is necessary to increase the degree of influence on the development of the economic and social infrastructure of the regions of the Russian Federation. The work clarifies the nature and the content of the concept “regional institution of development,” as well as the main groups of the regional development institutions existing in Russia. The scientists develop trends toward increasing the efficiency of their functioning based on the survey. This survey is conducted for the heads of the development institutions the entities of the Russian Federation in terms of authority and degree of independence aimed to support investors and interact with them. The authors consider priorities in choosing current projects to develop the investment and social infrastructure, as well as the problems that hinder their efficient operation. The article “Infrastructure Projects and Transport Systems Financing in Russia” by L. R. Ikhsanova et al. is essential for this part. It is devoted to the problem of project financing of transport system development. Based on the analysis of Russian transport systems financing, the authors prove that during the economic development, the importance of budget financing is gradually decreasing. And nowadays, private and foreign investments and public-private partnership in financing of the infrastructure projects are becoming increasingly important. Using econometric tools, the authors evaluate the impact of the transport sector on the Russian GDP. Also, it is worth noting the work “The Influence of the Russian Economic Crisis on the Regional Peculiarities of Investment Activity” by M. N. Mironova, U. V. Mizerovskaya, E. V. Zhigalina and L. V. Shubtsova from the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. The authors present a comprehensive analysis of the negative trends of investments in the economy of Russia and its regions, caused by the economic recession. The analysis of the investment structure shows a decline in the share of state property and an increase in the private property. This is associated with an increase in own funds and the growth of investments in mining operations and real estate. The authors compare the regional priorities of domestic and foreign investors and show the general level of investment activity in the regions and the prospects for the regional development of the Russian economy. vi Introduction The second part “Problems of Contemporary Regional Policy” is devoted to the government support for the regions, small enterprises and banks. The work “Food Stamps as a Method of the Parallel Government Support” by A. Nechaev, E. Ilina and M. Li is of particular interest. The scientists propose using food cards to support not only the population but also the regional agricultural commodity producers. It is proposed to limit the trade increment to 10% for essential products, which will allow developing the enterprises to find permanent market outlets. The low level of the trading margin will allow increasing the selling price for the manufacturer. This will contribute to the growth of the profitability of the main activity and indirectly stimulate the introduction of innovations. The authors believe that the proposed tool of support is promising in the context of the financial deficit since the funds allocated to the population stimulate agricultural production and increase the profitability of enterprises. The problem of investments and development of high-tech industries is one of the key subjects in this book. Thus, scientists O. I. Koloskova, I. V. Somina and M. Radosavljevic attempt to model the innovative activity of the Russian enterprises. They conclude that the most significant determinants of the innovation process in Russia are the market demand factor, investment-technological and business factors. The third part “Structural Changes in the Regional Economy” is devoted to the problems of particular sectors development in the regional economy. Efficiency assessment of the regional economy sectors is in the spotlight of I. A. Kabasheva, I. A. Rudaleva, A. V. Gorbatov and O. A. Krioshina in their work “The Effectiveness of the Regional Healthcare System: The Evidence from the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia).” The authors model the system of indicators for the assessment of the working efficiency of the health system in the Republic of Tatarstan. The authors assert that this model can be used for revising government programs and subprograms in health care. A number of works are dedicated to the development of the fuel and energy complex. E. A. Potapova, E. I. Bulatova, A. N. Kiryushkina and T. V. Polteva consider the development of the oil and gas industry through the prism of environmental safety. They note the existing paradoxical situation: The increase in the internal R&D expenses of the Russian oil and gas companies does not lead to the reduction in the pollutant emissions to the environment. Xiang Li, Aleksandr S. Bovkun, Galina M. Beregova, Aleksandr F. Schupletsov and Yullia A. Skorobogatova define approaches to building an effective system of project management in the field of renewable energy sources. They are convinced that the potential of renewable sources of energy in Russia is undervalued. But the use of modern management technologies will allow realizing power-efficient projects in this field. The work “Mathematical and Cartographic Modeling and Demographic Analysis of Rural Settlements” written by V. A. Rubtzov, N. K. Gabdrakhmanov, N. M. Biktimirov, M. R. Mustafin and R. R. Nurmieva (Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) is also of relevance. The authors pay special attention to considering the issues of complex presentation of Introduction vii spatial and coordination information about the population. The modern methods and solutions used in the demographic analysis are discussed in this work. The scientists show that the geographic and cartographic components often become the main way of studying natural or socio-economic systems, including the population at the regional level. The efforts of the authors, reviewers, participants and organizers of the conference make it possible to discuss the issues devoted to the economic development of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. All the conference participants have made a great contribution to holding of the conference. The chairpersons of the program committee of the conference are N. G. Bagautdinova (Doctor of Economics, Professor, director of the Institute of Management, Economics and Finance of Kazan Federal University) and Yu. N. Moseikin (Doctor of Economics, Professor, head of the Department of National Economics of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia). The gratitude should also be expressed to the conference organizers from the higher educational institutions of Kazan Federal University and RUDN University.
The article examines trends in fundraising of small industrial enterprises in Russia. There is an analysis of existing financial instruments of state support of small industrial companies, advantages and disadvantages. Despite the fact that an active government policy the past few years has greatly improved the ability of small industrial companies to attract the necessary funding, an imbalance in the amount of financial support at various stages of company development was revealed.
The author investigates issues related to the methodology and technology of applying the knowledge management system in an organization, describes infrastructure types needed to successfully practice a complex project of introducing an organizational, social and technological system of knowledge management.
Econometric study of Russian macroeconomic production function with transport and information infrastructure is conducted
G20-B20 Dialogue should be instrumental in enhancing G20 efficiency by both responding to the business interests and concerns and engaging private sector in generating growth and jobs. B20 (G20 Business Summit) was first initiated by the Canadian Council of Chief Executives (CCCE) on the eve of the Toronto summit in June 2010. To date five B20 meetings, including the one in Toronto, have been organized each putting forward recommendations for G20 leaders: in Seoul in November 2010, in Cannes in November 2011, in Los Cabos in June 2012 and in St Petersburg in 2013.
Investment made into the dialogue by both business and governments warrants an independent unbiased and rigorous analysis of what has been achieved and what lessons should be learnt. This chapter reviews progress of G20-B20 engagement to identify achievement and challenges.
The paper explores the outcomes of Russian Federation G20 Presidency in 2013. The analysis is based on the model of balancing external conditions and national priorities for developing an agenda in informal institutions (supply-demand model). This analytical paradigm allows to reveal to what extent the Presidency has managed to ensure: 1) a high level of response to the key global governance challenges in the agenda and summit decisions; 2) a balance between national and other members’ interests in the Presidency priorities; 3) utilizing the institution’s capabilities; 4) conformity of the role chosen by the Presidency (organizer, mediator, political leader, national representative) to the combination of external and internal conditions.
Russia took over the responsibility for coordinating the G20 work from Mexico, accepting the rotating presidency of this premier forum for economic cooperation on December 1, 2012. The G20 met the fifth year of its work under conditions of a two speed recovery which by March 2013 transformed into a three speed recovery. Unsteady and sluggish growth, persisting imbalances and downside global economy risks demanded that this forum of the world largest economies concentrate the efforts on developing a set of measures aimed at boosting sustainable, inclusive and balanced growth and jobs creation around the world. These priorities constituted the core of the Russian G20 presidency concept, aimed at ensuring sustainable global growth and rebuilding of trust between the world economy different agents in accordance with the G20 mission and capability.
Consolidating efforts on its core economic and financial priorities, the G20 also launched collaboration to overcome such risks as increasing income disparities, chronic underinvestment into development of safe, secure and modern infrastructure, unforeseen consequences of regulation.
The analysis findings reveal that the Russian presidency managed to ensure a good balance of national interests and the partners’ prioritiesin the G20 agenda; utilizing the G20 capabilities to respond to the key global governance challenges. The choice of the presidency role depended on the nature of the issues and was defined by a combination of internal and external conditions. Thus, the acuteness of the problem for all summit participants determined demand for leadership in including into the economic forum agenda the debate on a peaceful resolution of the conflict in Syria. On employment and social policies the Russian presidency combining the roles of an organizer and a political leader helped upgrade the G20 dialogue to a new quality level.
A major success factor in deliberation and adoption of the comprehensive action plan on base erosion and profit shifting was the OECD capability to take responsibility for the plan development. With the OECD leadership, solid experts’ foundation, and a high level of relevance of the problem for all members, the presidency supported the process as the organizer.
On the topic of stimulating long-term investment, a priority for Russia as well as most of the G20 partners, the presidency managed to consolidate the efforts of several international institutions over a short period. On this priority, as well as on the financial regulation reform, the presidency acted as a representative of the national interests and an organizer. In developing the new development strategy the choice in favor of a combination of a mediator and an organizer proved most productive. As a result the G20 agreed a new cooperation for development outlook.
The presidency active collaboration with the international organizations and engagement with social partners was instrumental in harnessing their experts’ potential and enhancing the G20 transparency, legitimacy and effectiveness. The G20 institutions consolidation continued through development of new coordination mechanisms and strengthening accountability.
Under the Russian presidency the G20 reaffirmed its value as the premier economic cooperation forum. Emphasizing restoring strong and inclusive growth and employment while ensuring fiscal sustainability, the leaders for the first time in the history of the G20 stressed that the well-being of individual people should be at the center of the growth agenda. This consequential outcome of the five years collaboration might be a start of a new G20 agenda where inclusiveness is one of the pillars of growth.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.