Пособие по практической грамматике английского языка (Grammar in Context)
The article presents the history of the Longman dictionary that has become a bestseller all over the world. Revealing the translation of the lexicographic idea into practice, the author tells us about the scholarly disputes that accompanied the development of the principles of a new type of English dictionary.
This article is devoted to the analysis of verbal peculiarities of communicative strategy Directive in English discourse. The historically formed peculiarities of English-speaking communicants’ attitude toward the ways of expressing directive are also distinguished in order to highlight their culturological originality. The main focus is directed towards the lingual expressions of directive in different communicative situations. Considerable emphasis is given to the means of softening and avoiding of direct imperative constructions as part of the strategy of distancing. The empiric material for our research is represented by authentic literature of English-speaking countries of the 21-st century.
In article the main problems of training in a foreign language within cognitive (informative) preparation for cross-cultural communication are considered. The concept of the discourse's analysis focused on studying of linguistic level in structure of social communication which is perceived now as the interdisciplinary approach issued on a joint of sociolinguistics and a lingvokultural is analyzed. Are brought a number of examples to show existence of the structural frames concerning any conversation with several participants.
What kind of data do we usually see in a linguistic paper? The answer is evident: an isolated sentence. Judging whether a particular sentence in a particular meaning is grammatical in a certain language is the primary tool for many formal approaches, but other researchers also often rely on sentences, for example, when they collect data in the field or make generalizations about predominant word orders in various languages. Sentences are great to analyze a very wide range of phenomena, but there are two obvious drawbacks: they are not well suited to study anything that crucially depends on prosody or on wider context. The paper analyzes several examples and then addresses a more general question: how do we interpret sentences in isolation?
Human communication is basically the exchange of information. How can this be realized? Each communicant proceeds from a subjective perception of an objective reality; however in order to exchange information relating to this reality communicants are obliged to coordinate their perceptions. Each of us entertains personal experiences based on individual impressions and associations. But communication presupposes the presence of a common experience and the possibility of the coordination of subjective perceptions. It is presumed that communicants share common experiences: this seems to be the natural premise of communication.
How is this possible? How can I be certain, for example, that my interlocutor understands the words in the same way I do? How can we correlate our understanding? It seems obvious that the necessary condition of communication is an agreement between the communicants. But how can this agreement be reached? Where is the initial point of the coordination of individual experience of different persons?
The present book deals with this and related questions. Special attention is given to the role of deixis in the process of communication and to the mechanisms of linguistic comprehension.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.