Some methodological foundations for elaboration of the modern strategies of ecological thinking based on the theoretical biology and on the theory of complex adaptive systems статье are under review in the article. Ecology, being a science of interaction of living organisms and their communities with environment, goes far beyond its primary frames of the biological knowledge and becomes a nodal discipline from which vectors of perspective interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge diverge. The ecological approach turns to be fruitful in social and humanitarian researches. Ecology of action, ecology of mind, ecology of life, of cognition and of creativity, ecology of thoughts and words, ecology of ideas, ecology of communication and ecology of management – all these conceptual attitudes give evidence of audacious integration of the ecological thinking in wide spheres of the humanitarian and social knowledge, where it gives opportunities for some fresh approaches. The concept of Umwelt coined by Jakob von Uexküll in 1909 and his study of Umwelt (Umweltslehre) are of great significance for the development of the modern ecological universalism and for elaboration of strategic imperatives of the ecological thinking. The concept of Umwelt as a specific environment to which any biological species or its separate individual is adapted and which is constructed by it allows us to elaborate a real interdisciplinary platform for development of the theory of ecology, for holding a reasonable position in discussions about sustainable development and sustainable futures as well as about the role of education for sustainable development of the world.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.