Социально-экономические факторы трансформации института семьи
The monograph is devoted to problems of the analysis of the transformation of the family in Russia. In detail the role of the family in the modern Russian society. Describes the existing approaches to the transformation of the family and to identify the factors that determine the changes taking place. Special attention is paid to the role of socio-economic factors in the process of transformation of the family. Materials of the monograph can be useful for specialists, involved in the study of the modern family, the development of measures of family policy, demographers and economists, workers of social sphere.
Based on the analysis of theoretical developments and empirical data, the article describes the current fertility rate in Russia and foreign counties. The authors explore the dependence of the fertility on the public assessments of the economic environment, on the gender equality settings and on the public attitudes towards national healthcare system. The authors give a description of the most important factors that influence the number of childless families in Russia. Basic statistical data used in the article involve the number of individual households, divorces, fertility and the assessment of Russians` conservatism. The authors consider modern demographic trends being an object of today`s gender studies as well as the impact of regional and religious factors on the nonmarital fertility. Contemporary demographic theories that take into account the changing status of women in society are also described. Major hypotheses are proved by the data of public opinion polls conducted in Russia over the recent years. The gender equality in public sphere leads to the increase in economic independence of women which may boost fertility at the expense of the reduced social risks. However, cultural changes may have different effects depending on institutional macro context they belong to. The authors conclude that the combination of sociological studies and experimental psychological approaches is vital. The authors strengthen the gender equality in private and public spheres and make an unexpected conclusion: if the quality between men and women is preserved, the fertility will not decrease (as we have seen in recent decades) but will rather increase.
In this paper we consider the trends of the changes occurring in the sphere of interaction between the institution of the family and other institutions engaged in the education and socialization of children and youth. The factors that determine changes, are considered the basic mechanisms of interaction.
The report investigates the relationship between the processes of transformation of the institution of family and the formation of valuable orientations of young generation. The report's conclusions are based on the data of statistics, population censuses and the results of sample surveys, including those conducted with the participation of autoread changes in the sphere of marriage and reproductive behaviour. The conclusion is made about changing the ideal model of the family, relations views about the desired model of the family and the system of life values, changing educational strategies toward the qualities that allow personal success and independence.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.