Исследование компьютерной модели арифметико-логического устройства ЭВМ. Методические указания к лабораторной работе по курсу “Организация ЭВМ и систем”
This study aims to determine the added value of agent-based modeling (ABM) to the methodological toolkit of political science and to empirically demonstrate the advantages of this approach for modeling socio-political processes. In the first section of the article, the author examines the construction of theoretical models for the study of socio-political processes and describes the stages of formalization of verbal theoretical models. The second section is devoted to the core differences between agent-based modeling and other formal modeling approaches. In the third section, to empirically illustrate the merits of ABM for modeling socio-political processes, the author constructs an experimental model based on the assumptions of the classical theory by E. Downs (1957) on party competition and the median voter. The testable assumption is that voting for moderate parties reduces the polarization of the party system. The results of the ABM demonstrate that with the addition of dynamics and extra information about the strategies of the main players, the assumption of the verbal model that a dislocated distribution in favor of moderate parties has a negative effect on polarization is not valid. ABM has shown a positive correlation between dislocated party identification of voters and extreme disposition of non-moderate parties: non-moderate parties lose votes, which leads to a decrease in polarization, but at the same time, they position themselves more extreme in relation to the ideological dimension, which increases polarization.
Bacterial cell wall is targeted by many antibiotics. Among them are lantibiotics, which realize their function via interaction with transmembrane lipid-II molecule — a chemically conserved part of the cell wall synthesis pathway. To investigate structural and dynamic properties of this molecule, we have performed a series of nearly microsecond-long molecular dynamics simulations (MD) of lipid-II and some of its analogs in zwitterionic single component and charged mixed model phospholipid bilayers (the reference and mimic of the bacterial plasmatic membrane, respectively). Extensive analysis revealed that lipid-II forms a unique “amphiphilic pattern” exclusively on the surface of the model bacterial membrane (and not in the reference bilayer). We hypothesize that conserved features of lipid-II along with characteristic modulation of the bacterial membrane provide a recognition spot for many lantibiotics. This putative recognition mechanism opens new opportunities for studies on lantibiotics action and design of novel armament against resistant bacterial strains.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.