Конкурентоспособность национальных экономик в условиях глобализации мирового хозяйства: факторы, инструменты, модели
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
The key issues of the theory and practice of modern trade policy and multilateral regulation of international trade in goods and services within the framework of the GATT/WTO system, including the use of trade regulation instruments, as well as the institutional framework of national and international trade regulation mechanisms are considered.
Using network approach, we propose a new method of identifying key food exporters based on the long-range (LRIC) and short-range interaction indices (SRIC). These indices allow to detect several groups of economies with direct as well as indirect influence on the routes of different levels in the food network.
Participation of a country in global value chains is highly dependent on types of interaction with its major trading partners. The purpose of current research is to uncover the US influence on the Canadian pharmaceutical industry insertion into global value chains. The first part of the analysis is devoted to key trends of the US and Canadian pharmaceutical industries development under the expansion of global value chains. As a result, the following hypotheses are investigated: (1) Canada's participation in pharmaceutical value chains is mostly regional other than global; (2) Canada’s regional value added is primarily generated through cooperation with the US pharmaceutical sector; (3) dominant positions of the US corporations on the world as well as Canadian pharmaceutical markets stifle Canada’s integration into global value chains. The second part of the research describes the quantitative approach to the hypotheses testing. For instance, data from the World Input-Output Database is used to calculate the origin of value added based on the geography and product type (national and foreign value added in the exports of final and intermediate goods). The final part of the paper deals with the data interpretation and contains conclusions. Namely, it was found that pharmaceutical GVCs in North America are in fact regional for most countries and Canada is not the exception (first hypothesis proved). Further, foreign value added content of Canadian pharmaceutical exports is primarily generated in the US (second hypothesis proved). At the same time, the last hypothesis has not gained support in current research. The share of foreign value added (other than the US or Mexico) in Canadian pharmaceutical exports demonstrates significant growth during the period of 2002-2014. Thus, it can be stated that Canada has a positive experience of integration into GVCs under dominant trading partner.
This article explores the history of the Russian monopolistic companies that operated in the international market for blubber in the first half of the eighteenth century. It argues that the long-held view that the companies were unsuccessful is not supported by the statistics relating to the trade, which indicate impressive progress in terms of market revenue and the redistribution of profits. Moreover, the authorities had ambitious strategic goals for the project as a whole that entailed more than simple commercial success. The companies, in fact, were perceived as an instrument that would transform landlocked Muscovy into a leading power in the international maritime economy. The article analyzes the essence and the consequences of these conflicting perspectives.
The U.S. withdrawal from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) project in January 2017
effectively marked the end (at least—for some time) of the period of active competition
between so-called “mega-regional agreements” in the Asia-Pacific region. A flagship of
the Obama administration’s initiatives in Asia, the TPP spurred China to intensify work
on an alternative project—its Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)—
and sparked an unusual wave of competition among APR institutions. Significantly,
Russia joined this “partnership race” in 2016, putting forward an initiative to build a
Greater Eurasian Partnership. It became something of a given that any power aspiring to
regional leadership must have its own “partnership plan” to promote. At the same time,
the formation and development of mega-regional partnerships is an important stage in
the regionalization of the world economy and global politics and a key element of the
new phenomenon of regionalization. This article examines the TPP and RCEP initiatives
as attempts to form a regional international order holding some degree of autonomy
from the global set of rules for the functioning of regional international systems—in this
case, that of the APR.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.