История женщин на Западе: Парадоксы эпохи Возрождения и Просвещения
Modern historical vexillology of pre-Modern epoches deals mostly not with real banners but with their descriptions or images. This is why one should apply also for this disciplin (now breacking out from museums) all methods of historical source criticism. The main task of vexillology consists not just in describing its objects but in studying specific features of cultural interrelations designated by banners. The article traces, how European vexillological traditions have been formed in late Antiquity and throughout Middle Ages.
Drawing upon exegetical and scientific writings of Isaac Newton, his followers (W. Whiston) and opponents (Ch. Burnet), present study deals with the rise of objectivism – fundamental epistemic principle underlying the modern scientific worldview. The study is focused upon the synthesis of three epistemological principles, which shaped the science of Enlightenment: hermeneutic transparency of text in exegesis, mathematical certainty in natural science, and realistic mimesis in literary criticism. The author also examines the epistemological project, opposed to objectivistic paradigm, that puts together allegory in biblical scholarship, hypothetical method in physic and the primacy of literariness over referentiality in literary theory. Present article seeks to contribute to the genealogy of objective reality – ontological a priori of the modern scientific thought, emerged from the confusion of methodologies and discourses, characteristic to early Modern Times.