Культура в зеркале языка и литературы: Материалы Второй Международной научной конференции. 14-15 апреля 2010 г.
Some languages constrain the recursive embedding of NPs to some specific morphosyntactic types, allowing it for example only with genitives but not with bare juxtaposition. In Indo-European, every type of NP embedding — genitives, adjectivizers, adpositions, head marking, or juxtaposition — is unavailable for syntactic recursion in at least one attested language. In addition, attested pathways of change show that NP types that allow recursion can emerge and disappear in less than 1000 years. This wide-ranging synchronic diversity and its high diachronic dynamics raises the possibility that at many hypothetical times in the history of the family recursive NP embedding could have been lost for all types simultaneously, parallel to what has occasionally been observed elsewhere (Everett 2005, Evans & Levinson 2009). Performing Bayesian phylogenetic analyses on a sample of 55 languages from all branches of Indo-European, we show however that it is extremely unlikely for such a complete loss to ever have occurred. When one or more morphosyntactic types become unavailable for syntactic recursion in an NP, an unconstrained alternative type is very likely to develop in the same language. This suggests that, while diachronic pathways away from NP recursion clearly exist, there is a tendency – perhaps a universal one – to maintain or develop syntactic recursion in NPs. A likely explanation for this evolutionary bias is that recursively embedded phrases are not just an option that languages have (Fitch et al. 2005), but that they are in fact preferred by our processing system.
The article deals with the current tendency towards an increase in Russian speakers’ verbalized metalinguistic reflection on language and culture contact, generated by growing exposure to global English and the influx of Anglicisms. Of crucial importance to cross-cultural research are metalinguistic commentaries, in which lay speakers register their negative attitude to those borrowings from English which reflect cultural norms and values clashing with the system of traditional Russian cultural norms and values. This is defined as a "linguacultural clash" or "linguacultural conflict"; its negatively marked metalinguistic interpretation is seen as part of speakers' "linguistic self-defense".
The paper discusses certain aspects of Indo-Uralic reconstruction, focusing on a comparison of our theoretical expectations from the comparison of Indo-European and Uralic basic lexicon with the actual results of lexicostatistical analysis.
Following pioneering ideas of Bojan Čop, this paper offers a brief sketch of a theory of the origin of Proto-Indo-European ablaut in the light of Indo-Uralic comparison. Starting from the assumption that Proto-Indo-Uralic phonotactics and morphophonology were essentially preserved in Proto-Uralic, but significantly changed in Proto-Indo-European, we trace the origin of Proto-Indo-European ablaut paradigms (mobile and acrostatic paradigms of root nouns, hysterokinetic, proterokinetic, amphikinetic and acrostatic paradigms of suffixed nouns). Each of these paradigms can be derived by a set of simple rules from the proposed Proto-Indo-Uralic reconstruction that is itself based on the conventional Proto-Uralic reconstruction.
In the paper, the classes of labile verbs (verbs which can be transitive or intransitive without any formal changes) are analyzed on the data of European and North Caucasian languages. The main conclusion is that there is a semantic difference between classes of labile verbs in the two language groups under analysis. In European languages, predicates with low semantic transitivity are labile (for instance, motion verbs and phasal verbs), while in Caucasian languages, lability is more characteristic of verbs with high semantic transitivity (verbs of destruction and similar verb classes).
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.