Серп и рубль: консервативная модернизация в СССР
Russia has not “fallen out of the history” in the 20th century. This century has been the time of a long overdue historical leap for our country: it was modernized and transformed from an agrarian and rural to an industrial and urban state. The Soviet era modernization was a “conservative”, “instrumental” one: to hammer it added a sickle, but it relied on outdated social mechanisms and conserved them, which did not facilitate the development of modern institutions of market economy and political democracy, and therefore it remained incomplete.
That is the main idea of Anatoly Vishnevsky. A well-known Russian sociologist and demographer offers his own interpretation of the lessons of the recent past, reflects on the social history of the Soviet Union as the stalled conservative modernization project, and cautions against its repetition.
In the article were considered the social conditions of appearance and formation of sociology in China. It is shown that the beginning of the institutionalization of sociology in China was associated with a pragmatic interest - recognition of the importance of sociology in Europe and Japan and attempts to use this experience on Chinese soil. The emergence of sociological science in China coincides with a period of deep economic and political crisis caused by the defeat in the late XIX century wars. Other factors in the development of sociology in China include the translation activities of Chinese enlighteners and scholars (such as Kang Yuwei, Yan Fu, Zhang Binlin, Liang Qichang), the activities of mission scientists, the training of Chinese students and post-graduate students in sociology at foreign universities. By the beginning of the 1930s, appeared the Chinese sociological society, were published the first journals. The experience of development and achievements of American sociology was significant not only for theoretical sociology, but also for the development of Chinese applied sociology. The article analyzes the process of the formation of Chinese sociology in the period of the Cultural Revolution, coupled with a series of ups and downs, till the complete prohibition of this science in China. Her revival began only in the late 70's because of the consolidation of the efforts of the scientific community, youth, representatives of state power. Modern Chinese sociology is a fully institutionalized science, having its own branches, departments and faculties in Chinese universities, scientific publications (primarily journals), scientific conferences, congresses, etc. Among the priority topics of the study in Chinese sociology are labor issues in small towns, issues of family and marriage relations, social transformation and modernization of society, the problems of life in the countryside and others. In present article for the first time were used the original sources (in Chinese) about the formation and development of sociology in China, were shown new authors whose works are devoted to the study of the formation of Chinese sociology.
The paper reflects upon the relevance of Weber's sociology in the 21st century. In the first part importance of his sociology is explained by referring to the idea of a state that is now returning back into the political and social realm. The second part overviews the contributions to the special issue dedicated to the intellectual legacy of Max Weber.
In the framework of the 75th anniversary celebration history faculty at the Voronezh State University at November 2015, department of Sociology and Political Science was held a «round table» with the participation of employers. It was about the role of sociology and political science in the preparation of modern specialists. It were discussed a lot of serious problems that exist today in the Russian system of higher education and the ways and methods of their solution.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.