Satellite Radiothermovision of Atmospheric Processes: Method and Applications
This book summarizes the author’s research resulted in developing the satellite radiothermovision approach which allows retrieving dynamical and energy characteristics of atmospheric mesoscale and synoptic-scale processes based on a close scheme of satellite passive radiometry data processing.
The book introduces new applications of the satellite passive microwave observations to detailed systematic study of tropical cyclones’ evolution, climatology and characteristics of atmospheric rivers, parameters of global atmospheric circulation and their variations on climatically significant scales.
The results presented in the book demonstrate a clear relation between the convergence/divergence of latent heat from the lower atmosphere to the center of tropical cyclone with variations of its intensity and provide a better insight into the tropical cyclone dynamical energy balance based on remote data.
The availability of high-resolution satellite images obtained through space radio communications offers the opportunity to use the most advanced technologies and techniques for analyzing remote sensing data. The paper discusses the data obtained with the use of ground-based, airborne or space-based filming equipment, which makes it possible to obtain images in one or several sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. This article provides an overview of existing artificial spacecraft and systems for obtaining space data. Also, there are the examples of the use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) for processing data obtained from artificial Earth satellites. CNN has a high learning ability and the capacity to automatically learn optimal functions based on the data.
On the basis of dendrochronological, lichenometric and historical data with the use of Earth remote sensing materials, the evolution of the Donguz-Orun Glacier has been reconstructed over the past centuries. In this work we used aerial photographs of 1957, 1965, 1981, 1987, satellite image of 2009, as well as descriptions, photographs, maps and plans of the glacier of the 19th and 20th centuries, data of instrumental measurements of the glacier end position in the second half of the 20th – early 21st centuries, dendrochronological dating of pine on the front part of the valley, and juniper to date coastal moraines, and the results of lichenometry studies. It has been established that the Donguz-Orun Glacier in the past had several clearly marked advances about 100, 200 and more than 350 years ago, which are expressed in relief in the form of uneven-aged coastal moraines. Despite the fact that the Donguz-Orun Glacier differs from many mountain-valley glaciers of the Caucasus primarily by its predominantly avalanche feeding and a moraine cover, almost entirely covering its surface, the main periods of its advances are consistent with the known large fluctuations of mountain glaciers during the Little Ice Age in the early 20th, early 19th, and, probably, in the middle of the 17th century. However, unlike most other Caucasian glaciers, the Donguz-Orun Glacier advanced in the 1970s–2000s. The scale of its degradation from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st century is also uncharacteristic for the Caucasus: the reduction in the length for longer than a century period is only about 100 m.
The article analyzes the possibility of stating by methods of system analysis the task of constructing and holding the orbital constellation of remote sensing spacecraft. Criteria are introduced that make up the generalized target functional of the orbital grouping, which makes it possible to separate the target task, the ballistic construction problem, and the stabilization problem.
The relevance. One of the areas of digital image processing, including images of Earth remote sensing, is associated with the embedding of additional information into such images for various purposes. Embedding of additional information into a digital image leads to distortion of the digital image natural model, as well as to the possible occurrence of visual artifacts. In the case of images of Earth remote sensing, such distortions may entail, for example, distortion of the object boundaries, as a result of which further analysis of the images will lead to incorrect results. Therefore, the studies aimed at finding new ways to reduce distortions caused by embedding additional information are relevant. The aim of the research is to improve the quality of steganographic embedding of information in the coefficients of discrete cosine transform of Earth remote sensing images by developing an improved embedding algorithm based on the QIM method and ensuring the correction of distortions of the natural image model in the frequency domain. Objects: algorithms for steganographic embedding of information in the coefficients of digital images discrete cosine transform. Methods: QIM steganographic method, methods of mathematical statistics, computational experiments. Results. The paper proposes a new approach to minimizing the distortion of the natural model of a digital image in the discrete cosine transform domain, based on changing the quantization step depending on the local image characteristics in the frequency domain. The result of the work is an improved algorithm for embedding the information in the coefficients of discrete cosine transform of images of Earth remote sensing, combining this approach with an approach to ensure the correct extraction of embedded information proposed by the authors earlier. The results of the experiments show that the developed algorithm, along with ensuring the accuracy of extraction, can significantly reduce the distortions introduced into frequency coefficients and ensure statistical indistinguishability of the cover images and stego images in 75 % of cases.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
Papers about natural protection territories
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NNRs) of the α7 subtype have been shown to contribute to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. The site of action and the underlying mechanism, however, are unclear. Here we applied a circuit modeling approach, supported by electrochemical in vivo recordings, to clarify this issue. Modeling revealed two potential mechanisms for the drop in accumbal dopamine efflux evoked by the selective α7 partial agonist TC-7020. TC-7020 could desensitize α7 NNRs located predominantly on dopamine neurons or glutamatergic afferents to them or, alternatively, activate α7 NNRs located on the glutamatergic afferents to GABAergic interneurons in the ventral tegmental area. Only the model based on desensitization, however, was able to explain the neutralizing effect of coapplied PNU-120596, a positive allosteric modulator. According to our results, the most likely sites of action are the preterminal α7 NNRs controlling glutamate release from cortical afferents to the nucleus accumbens. These findings offer a rationale for the further investigation of α7 NNR agonists as therapy for diseases associated with enhanced mesolimbic dopaminergic tone, such as schizophrenia and addiction