Совпадающие и опережающие экономические барометры: волны пандемии и региональная дивергенция в мире
The article analyzes the short-term eﬀects of aggregate economic sentiment on the expected GDP growth in Russia based on the results of regular large-scale surveys of business activity of the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat) for the period 1998–2021. The main purpose of the study is to substantiate the predictive value of the opinions of economic agents in expanding macroeconomic information, especially during crisis periods. The authors aggregate quarterly information for the analyzed period on 18 indicators of surveys with a sample of about 24,000 organizations in basic kinds of economic activity and 5,000 consumers in all Russian regions in a composite economic sentiment indicator (ESI). Then, a statistical analysis of the time series of ESI and GDP growth is carried out, including the identifcation of the integrability order with testing for stationarity and the presence of causality between indicators. The authors prove the possibility of using a vector autoregression (VAR) model with dummy variables to measure the investigated relationship.
The forecasting results reﬂect the interconnection of two time series with the response in the dynamics of the estimated variable (GDP growth) to the reaction of the business environment and the simulation of ﬂuctuations in the ESI dynamics, which are set by the authors and correspond to the expected economic sentiments amid possible crisis changes. Probabilistic estimates of GDP growth until mid-2022 are based on scenario impulses in the ESI dynamics at the 3rd quarter of 2021, which diﬀer in the amplitude and duration of their impact on economic growth, primarily due to coronavirus shocks. According to the results, under all scenarios for the development of business trends introduced by the authors, national economic growth can exceed by the middle of 2022 the pre-pandemic level of the 4th quarter of 2019 (102,9%).
The article analyzes the relationship between aggregate economic sentiment and GDP growth in Russia in the context of the regular large-scale surveys of business and households for the period of 1998–2020. The aim of the study is to prove the empirical value of the opinions of economic agents in expanding macroeconomic information, especially in a time of sudden crisis events, as well as the feasibility of their use in short-term statistics of business cycles. The cyclical sensitivity of aggregate economic sentiment relative to the reference GDP growth dynamics is tested. The authors calculate a composite economic sentiment indicator (ESI) that combines quarterly information on 18 survey-based indicators. The sample used to construct the ESI covers about 24,000 organizations in main economic activities and 5,100 consumers in all Russian regions. Common empirical patterns and cyclical movement are identified using the iterative procedure of visual and statistical analysis of the relationship between the GDP physical volume index and ESI. The results of cross-correlation analysis, Hodrick—Prescott filtering, and dating of cyclical dynamics are described. The significance of the composite survey-based indicator in the sectoral and cross-country analysis of entrepreneurial behavior, including that during the COVID-19-related crisis, is confirmed. The results of the study allow one to record the “cognitive shift” in the level of aggregated entrepreneurial confidence having formed in recent years. After the decline in ESI values during the protracted recession in 2015–2016, its subsequent four-year dynamics are characterized by the lowest potential compared with the recovery periods after all previous crises.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.