The education system for children with disabilities in the modern Russia: problems of reforming correctional school education
Inclusive education is a pedagogic approach that has been developed in response to the demand for including children with disabilities in regular school education. The present work is devoted to the studying of the reforming characteristics of the Russian correctional school education and attempts have been made to include inclusive education in particular social context related to Russian secondary schools. This thesis presents a series of studies devoted to the issues of the correctional education reform and the development of inclusive education in St. Petersburg during the period 2012-2016. The first public demonstration against the reform of correctional education started in 2011 after the beginning of the neoliberal educational reforms of the government. Therefore, our first study in 2012 was devoted to the opinion poll of the St. Petersburg residents focused on the reform of correctional and inclusive education. In December, 2012, 396 structured interviews were carried out. They were repeated in March, 2014. It is interesting to note that the study showed a fairly high loyalty to inclusive education. Our second research devoted to stakeholders was conducted in 2014. The first stage was devoted to teachers of regular schools in order to understand the extent of their acquaintance and involvement in the process of implementing inclusive education. 196 questionnaires of respondents - teachers at regular school in 2012 and 343 in 2014 were achieved. The second stage was devoted to the opinion of students of teacher education. We have 276 questionnaires of student-future teachers in 2012 and 269 in 2015. The research revealed quite contradictory assessments and judgments. The results showed that the concept of inclusive education gradually integrates into the life of modern Russia but also requires efforts to fully implement it in the educational process.
The inter-agency approach to the integration of demographic and educational policies aimed at promoting the social well-being of the family forms a set of measures to develop segments of pre-school education (particularly the activities of groups in variable areas of education) to increase access to and reach pre-school education for children of different age groups. The COVID-19 pandemic that has engulfed the global community has affected all areas of activity, including education. It is not enough simply to assess the extent of the damage done to pre-school education during quarantine. Measures should be taken to develop a remote mode of interaction (this will undoubtedly require the training of teachers of different categories) and to assist parents in organizing educational programs for preschool children at home.
Opportunities for the dissemination of different variable formats of pre-school education are explored, the dynamics of demand for them are analyzed, the risks and problems of alternative forms of education in the context of territorial settlements are assessed. Active demand for combined groups from parents of preschoolers has been revealed. In the context of the implementation of the inclusion, there is an increase in the supply to meet the demand for these programs in the combined groups. There is an increased demand for family groups in rural areas. The current situation requires an increase in the number of groups and places in them, taking into account sanitary standards in quarantine.
The book addresses one of the most relevant issues on the current social agenda – the building of an inclusive society. It covers income, gender and age equality, disability rights, immigrant and language minority rights, inclusive education, body positivity and animal rights. The book is based on up-to-date authentic texts (official documents, newspaper and magazine articles, public speeches) and contains a system of exercises aimed at enhancing communication skills, expanding vocabulary and developing analytical and critical thinking skills.
The book is targeted at graduate students of the foreign language faculties.
The article presents some results of an empirical study conducted to identify the ideas of teachers and heads of educational organizations in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region about the problems of implementing the concept of inclusive education. In the process of research, the authors revealed differences and similarities in the respondents' perceptions about the real possibilities and barriers to the implementation of the concept of inclusive education, including their understanding of the actual phenomenon of the inclusive environment and the basic conditions for its organization.
The article describes the modern Russian educational “landscape” where people with disabilities can realize their right to education. Based on the data provided in the Monitoring conducted by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (data for 2015), to analyze teaching models for the students with disabilities, we have chosen the higher education institutions where a number of students with disabilities exceeds 30. The data from the Monitoring were supplemented with the information which came from the websites of these educational organizations. It has been revealed that most of the selected higher education institutions fail to address the educational needs of the students with disabilities (or do not indicate such an orientation thereto) and accurately articulate the educational format. The higher education institutions which implement specialized, integrated, and inclusive education models and a “transitional” model from specialized to inclusive education appear to be more systematic in their teaching approaches for the challenged students. However, such higher education institutions do not constitute the majority. The key findings in the analysis allow us to perceive that today there exists the system of learning and training students with disabilities, with inclusivity being a property of a particular higher education institution rather than the institute of higher education as a whole.
The increase of “friendliness” of the education system towards individuals with disabilities (people with health limitations), especially the development of inclusive education, is a relatively recent humanistic trend that has been set by the most economically developed societies and in which our country has been responsibly integrating for the last two decades. The article summarizes the results of the survey that was conducted in 2017 among NSU graduates with disabilities. The study was aimed at describing how higher education promotes acquisition of the social and physical space by individuals with disabilities, which means ensuring the social inclusion.
The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the preschool inclusive education implementation practices in small and large cities of Russia. Three cities of different status and different territories are identified and compared. In these cities, all-roundquestionnaire survey among practicing teachers and leaders of preschool education was carried out.The main differences in the respondents' ideas about the basic problems of preschool inclusion development are revealed and possible causes of the identified problems are determined.The research results provide an opportunity to draw preliminary conclusions: in the smaller cities the views of practicing teachers about the problems of inclusive preschool education differ greatly from the views of their colleagues from the large cities.
In this exploratory study, we examined several interethnic ideologies held by individuals (assimilation, colorblindness, multiculturalism, and polyculturalism) from a social ecological perspective. We examined moderation effects of neighborhood ethnic density (ED) on relationships between interethnic ideologies and intergroup bias towards various minority ethnic groups in the Russian context. Intergroup bias was assessed as a composite score of bias toward four ethnic groups who have different cultural distances from the Russian mainstream population: Chechens, Belarusians, Uzbeks, and Chinese. We obtained a gender balanced sample of ethnic Russians from the Central Federal District of Russia (N = 359) comprising of 47% women and 53% men. The measures were used in a Russian translation by an adaptation using the back-translation and cognitive interviews. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the relationships. The results showed that high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened negative relations between intergroup bias and ideologies that purportedly accept cultural diversity (multiculturalism and polyculturalism). On the other hand, for interethnic ideologies those purportedly reject cultural diversity, high perceived neighborhood non-Russian ED weakened the positive relations between intergroup bias and assimilation and strengthened the negative relations between intergroup bias and colorblindness. The pattern of results suggests that the relationship between attitudes and intergroup bias may change based on the perceived ethnic composition of the local area and frequency of contacts. Although our findings are relatively novel they support the emerging view that attitudes and intergroup relations need to be studied from a social ecological context.
The present paper discusses perspectives of Activity Theory (AT) in the context of contemporary globalizing world, describing which we refer to the notion “De-structuralized modernity” (Sorokin & Froumin, 2020). Radical changes in everyday life challenge social sciences and humanities. Approaches are in demand, which have the potential to comprehend the changing human étant and éntre. We argue that Activity Theory has the potential to face these challenges. Leontiev’s AT grounds on the idea of qualitatively new mental features arising to deal with novel environmental challenges, which is much in line with J.M. Baldwin reasoning on evolution. AT also offers a method to prognosis the upcoming neoplasms. In the same time, applying classics of AT to the current reality, “De-structuralized modernity”, entails the need for new theoretical elaborations of the latter, stemming from the radical transformation of the relations between individual and socio-cultural environments. A unique societal context emerges on the global level, which, on the one hand, requires individual to adapt constantly to changing socio-cultural reality, and, on the other hand, dramatically expands his/her potential for proactive actorhood transforming surrounding structures. We argue that the major and novel challenge for the individual is the task of maintaining the integrity and coherence of the a) Self-identity and b) system of links in and with the socio-cultural environment - in their dynamics and unity. The notion of “culture” has particular relevance and importance in this context because it allows grasping simultaneously two dimensions in their dynamic dialectical interrelations. First, the “internal” (“subjective”, “in the minds”) and “external” (“objective”, material and institutional environment) realities. Second, individual (“micro”) and societal (“macro”) scales of human activities. Discussing the ways to understand these dynamics, we dispute the popular “constitutive view” on personality and refer to the concept of the “ontological shift” (Mironenko & Sorokin, 2018). We also highlight how technological advancements change and “expand” human nature making it capable to deal with the outlined new tasks.
The article deals with the ways Russian authorities have constructed the social problem of HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) in Russia. The statistical construction of HIV/AIDS includes data indicating the significant rise of HIV prevalence in Russia since 2000. The study focuses on what and how Russian authorities speak about HIV/AIDS, while there are official data on the rapid spread of the virus in the country. The work is based on a discourse analysis of the authorities’ rhetoric about HIV/AIDS. During his first presidential terms, Vladimir Putin constructed HIV/AIDS not as an epidemic in the country, but as a “global problem,” representing Russia as a participant in international efforts to combat AIDS. The president problematized the HIV spread through the rhetoric of endangerment but without its crucial term “epidemic,” while at the same time de-problematized HIV in Russia by the strategy of naturalizing (“this is a problem that all countries face”). The Russian authorities appealed to traditional moral values and spoke about marginal or risk groups, rather than risk practices. After the deterioration of relations with Western countries since 2007, the Russian president excluded HIV/AIDS problem from his public agenda, despite the existence of the data on steep HIV growth in Russia. The Russian president’s traditionalism, de-problematization, and silence concerning HIV/AIDS lead to the absence of the HIV/AIDS issues in media agenda, the agenda of local authorities, and consequently the personal agendas of Russian citizens. The consequences are ignorance, fears, stigmatization of people living with HIV, semi-legal status of needle, and syringe exchange programs for intravenous drug users, low antiretroviral therapy coverage, and the continuing HIV epidemic.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.