Wildlife trade in the Russian Federation
The Russian government has introduced a new national project to strengthen primary care that will run from 2019 to until 2024. Over this period, there are ambitious targets to further improve population health as well as sector specific targets to improve the supply of health workers in primary care and modernise primary care facilities. A distinctive feature of primary care policy in the Russian Federation is the inclusion of extensive health checks, which will be expanded to cover the whole population in an attempt to address a high burden of non-communicable diseases
Russia features complex and rather centralized structure of public finances. The federation controls the majority of tax revenues, partially allocated to the regions, and the public expenditure in respect of regional public goods is done via direct regional expenditure, as well as via federal programs and federal grants, depending on which level of administration is responsible for the said public good. In any case these expenditures need to be efficient partially due to limited resources of the regions and partially due to cost-limiting approach of the Russian public authorities.
Numerous studies analyzed the efficiency of public expenditures at the level of central, regional or local governments; however, there was only limited and partial analysis of public finances of Russian regions, without detailed estimates of efficiency of expenditures or comparison across geographically close regions. Therefore, authors intend to cover this gap in scientific literature.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the technical efficiency of regional public expenditure, with special emphasis on regions of Russian Federation located in Volga Federal District in the period 2013-2017. Volga Federal District includes fourteen administrative regions, all of which feature developed industry and infrastructure but vary in terms of social development.
To evaluate the technical efficiency of public expenditures in the regions of Volga Federal District in the period 2013-2017, the authors used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to process data, following Charnes, et al. (1978). The DEA model inputs comprise total expenditure for education and total expenditure for health care of each region, while two sets of outputs consist of (1) teacher-student ratio at all levels of education and number of medical doctors per 10,000 inhabitants and (2) number of students at all levels of education and number of clinic visits per doctor per year.
The DEA model identified significant differences in the efficiency of expenditure on education and health care across regions of Volga Federal District; however, there was no expected correspondence with the size and economic development of the regions (regions with larger population and economy were expected to be more efficient, but the model suggests otherwise). The authors further examine the potential causes of regional public expenditure in the examined sectors of education and health care.
The article discusses the effects of concentration of students in the system of higher education in the regions of Russia and methodological approaches to their assessment. The issues of accessibility and inequality in higher education are increasingly being put on the agenda by a number of researchers. Historically, universities are located in large cities, new universities also follow this example, thereby enhancing the effect of concentration. The policy of the Ministry of Education and Science and Federal service for supervision in education and science, aimed at combating low-quality programs and universities, has led to an increase in the concentration of universities in major cities. This fact is confirmed by the calculated Theil and Herfindahl — Hirschman indices and the coefficient of variation. Thus, we can talk about the formation of university oases and deserts. According to our research, more than half of the territory of the Russian Federation constitutes an educational (university) desert
The paper is devoted to the analysis of the definition of organized crime. It highlights the transformation of organized crime - from traditional crime to new type crime.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.