Цифровые технологии в российской экономике
This book comprises high-quality, refereed research papers presented at the 2019 International Symposium on Computer Science, Digital Economy and Intelligent Systems (CSDEIS2019): The symposium, held in Moscow, Russia, on 4–6 October 2019, was organized jointly by Moscow State Technical University and the International Research Association of Modern Education and Computer Science. The book discusses the state of the art in areas such as computer science and its technological applications; intelligent systems and intellectual approaches; and digital economics and methodological approaches. It is an excellent reference resource for researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, engineers, and management practitioners interested in computer science and its applications in engineering and management.
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to develop a strategy of provision of security of wireless future of digital economy. Methodology: The author determines, analyzes, and compares scenarios of wireless future of digital economy depending on completeness of provision of security, with the help of the methods of logical and problem analysis and imitation modeling. Results: As a result of modeling the wireless future of digital economy, the risks to security, causes of their emergence (factors that require management), and perspectives of risk management are determined. A strategy of provision of security of wireless future of digital economy is presented-it reflects the structure of risk management of this process through the prism of its subjects and performed functions, as well as the tools that include robototronics, cloud and blockchain technologies, and human monitoring of digital devices. Implementation of this strategy will allow reducing the risk component of functioning and development of digital economy, its quick growth and stimulation of social progress (increase of population's living standards)-i.e., implementation of the optimistic scenario. Recommendations: As a result, it is concluded that even in case of highly-effective risk management there preserves a rather high level of risk of provision of security of digital economy's wireless future. Thus, with digital modernization of modern socio-economic systems together with practical implementation of the offered strategy of provision of security of digital economy's wireless future, it is recommended to conduct measures for reducing the level of social tension and preventing the opposition to changes. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
The study identifies the need to develop the entrepreneurial competencies of specialists in business and management in the digital economy age and reveals the understanding of opportunities and risks of the digital transformation of the economy. It provides a theoretical framework, based on a scientometric analysis of publications on digital economy with VOSviewer Software and an extensive literature review, emphasizing the necessity of entrepreneurial competencies in the digital economy. The results of the exploratory qualitative study show how undergraduate students in management and business explain what digital economy is and who is the manager in the digital age, and explain opportunities and threats that they associate with the digital transformation. The paper discusses the results and major problems concerning the students’ perception of the digital economy and a manager in the digital context. This study contributes to the research that focuses on the development of management and entrepreneurship in the digital economy.
The article is devoted to the consideration of a number of organizational and methodological issues of creating a digital platform for the transport complex, concerning the problems of analysis and accounting for risks that arise when integrating competencies for the formation of information and logistics services. The questions that the authors explore in this article are very relevant when creating digital services on the transport platform based on the integration of several technological products belonging to different owners. Detailing possible risks is necessary for their subsequent mitigation by the organizational and technological infrastructure of the digital platform.
The authors consider the relationships that arise between the fundamental elements of the digital platform: the basic product of the platform, digital services and their sales processes. We analyze various categories of the basic product - an intangible asset, without which a complex of digital services cannot be built within the digital platform. The study examines the dependence of an intangible asset on the assets of tangible and human carriers of this asset, as well as the risks that arise in this case.
The research is based on the methodology of conceptual analysis of designing complex socio-economic forms and organizational structures, which was successfully tested when creating the aerograd information and logistics center at Sheremetyevo international airport.
The use of the methodological approach outlined by the authors allows minimizing the risks that arise during the development of digital services by developing appropriate contractual forms and technologies that make up the digital platform repository, as well as selecting appropriate organizational and legal mechanisms for creating functional components of the transport platform. For effective practical integration of competencies, a recommendation is given for creating an innovative center of the digital platform in the organizational and legal form of a non-commercial partnership.
Materials of scientific and practical conference are included in the collection of works «Digital economy and «the Industry 4.0»: problems and prospects», prepared by laboratory «Innovative industrial economy» of Peter the Great St. Petersburg polytechnical university together with a number of the scientific organizations, higher education institutions, the industry entities.
In the collection of scientific works materials according to the theory of development of digital economy in modern conditions of the global competition, practical realization of the concept «the Industry 4.0», to research of problems and prospects of development of innovative activity of economic systems and enterprise entities, use of tools and valuation methods of an industrial development of regions, industries, the entities are reflected.
In the collection works of scientists and specialists of a number of higher education institutions, Russian Academies of Sciences institutes, the organizations, organizations and the entities, representatives of bodies of the public, municipal administration and executive power of Russia and foreign countries are provided.
Materials of the collection will be useful to teachers, scientists, specialists of the industrial, scientific enterprises, the organizations and organizations, and also graduate students, undergraduates and students.
The article is devoted to the preparation for the digital transformation of the international air cargo terminal, carried out in order to increase the volume of air cargo and mail processed at the airport at the terminal complex. The process of digital transformation is a process of reengineering. It affects all the functional components of the company, without exception, and, first of all, management. It is important to determine in advance what threats the new management brings to the company, what competitive advantages the terminal can potentially gain as a result of digital transformation, what can serve as the basis for successful reengineering, and what management, technological, and technical issues need to be paid special attention to. The article discusses the technological and organizational aspects of the cargo airport, which can serve as a potential basis for successful transformation. The authors discuss in detail the new key business processes of digital service management at the terminal of companies in the Agency and forwarding environment. We consider options for building these processes based on the integration of services of the digital platform of the cargo terminal, the principles of implementing Omni-channel digital management of the processes of organizing air cargo transportation at an international airport
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine the perspectives of improving the system of emergency medical aid and services in the conditions of digital economy and to develop the algorithm of this system's work on the basis of the Internet of Things. Methodology: The methods of systematization, logical analysis, and block schemes are used. Results: As a result of studying the peculiarities of the applied universal algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services, current problems and their causal connections are determined. It is substantiated that in the conditions of digital economy there's a possibility for full-scale technological modernization of the system of emergency medical aid and services, which allows improving it due to complex solving of all determined topical problems. An algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services on the basis of the Internet of Things is developed. Recommendations: The offered algorithm is recommended for practical application, as it ensures the following advantages: Automatic call for emergency medical aid if necessary, substantial reduction of the period of patient's waiting for a transport vehicle for providing emergency medical aid and services, reduction and automatization of organizational procedures that accompany the process of provision of emergency medical aid and services, overcoming the deficit or absence of necessary medication for providing highly-effective emergency medical aid and services, and increase of competence of medical staff that provide emergency medical aid and services due to systemic collection of feedback from patients. These advantages allow guaranteeing timely provision of emergency medical aid and services and insurance payments for compensating the expenditures of medical organizations, thus increasing the effectiveness of work of the system of emergency medical aid and services. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
This report evaluates current transboundary shipment legislation and its influence on the movement of used electrical and electronic equipment (UEEE) destined for reuse and/or refurbishment, specifically addressing the electronic refurbishment industry’s point of view. The report is particularly concerned with the increased costs, and resultant reduction, of reusing UEEE that occurs as a result of such legislation. The report examines (i) current international legislation regarding transboundary shipment of e-waste; (ii) case study experiences from stakeholders in the electronics industry collected from survey and interviews; and (iii) various models and practices adopted by reuse organizations to handle the proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). The report identifies three priority areas obstructing reuse organizations’ movement of UEEE across the globe: (i) discrepancies in legislation and enforcement between developed and developing countries; (ii) legislative limitations; and (iii) the valuation of UEEE. Based on these evaluations, the report proposes five key recommendations to resolve such issues: 1. The identification of specific policy amendments for the current transboundary shipment legislation; 2. The establishment of national e-waste and reuse policies within developed and developing nations; 3. The development of a comprehensive database to harmonise legislation between developed and developing countries; 4. The expansion of recycling and dismantling facilities in developed and developing nations using the informal recycling sector as a valuable element; and 5. The introduction of a regulated green, international e-waste transboundary channel. For the sake of expediency, these recommendations may be considered on either a regional or sub-regional level.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.