The Vedic -ya-presents: Passives and intransitivity in Old Indo-Aryan
This book is the first comprehensive study of the Vedic present formations with the suffix ‑ya‑ (‘‑ya-presents’ for short), including both present passives with the accented suffix ‑yá‑ and non-passive -ya-presents with the accent on the root (class IV in the Indian tradition). It offers a complete survey of all ‑ya-presents attested in the Vedic corpus. The main issue in the spotlight of this monograph is the relationship between form (accent placement, diathesis) and function (passive/non-passive) in the system of the -ya-presents – one of the most solidly attested present classes in Sanskrit. One of the aims of the present study is to corroborate the systematic correlation between accent placement and the passive/non-passive distinction: passives bear the accent on the suffix, while non-passives have the accent on the root. The book also focuses on the position of the passive within the system of voices and valency-changing categories in Old Indo-Aryan.
Time as a philosophical ontological category turns into thinking method in Arendt’s texts. The basis of this "transformation" is a redefining the Augustine’s terminology of time. This article focuses on the identification of the heritage Augustine thought about the concept of time in the philosophy of H. Arendt. It examines the mechanisms for the Augustinian time’s terminology in her papers - namely, the concepts of «hodiernus», «natalis» and the understanding of the time through the categories of "past", "future" and "present".
This article examines the different ways of the reconstruction of true and false memories: purposeful rethinking of the experience and the distortion of memories. The impact of the external and internal factors on the memory is discussed.
This book presents a comprehensive survey of the individual languages and language subgroups within the Indo-European language family.
With over four hundred languages and dialects and almost three billion native speakers, the Indo-European language family is the largest of the recognized language groups and includes most of the major current languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau and the Indian subcontinent. Written by an international team of experts, this comprehensive, single-volume tome presents in-depth discussions of the historical development and specialized linguistic features of the Indo-European languages. This unique resource is the ideal reference for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of Indo-European linguistics and languages, but also for more experienced researchers looking for an up-to-date survey of separate Indo-European branches. It is of interest to researchers and anyone with an interest in historical linguistics, linguistic anthropology and language development.
Human rationality is often assumed to be based on the logical relation of transitivity. Yet, although transitivity fits relationships between physical objects or human decisions about targets that are independent of one another, it fails to fit the phenomena of systemic and developmental organization. Intransitivity has been shown to be present in various kinds of systems, ranging from the brain to society. In cyclical systems transitivity constitutes a special case of intransitivity. In this chapter, we examine different forms of emergence of intransitivity cycles, fixation of transitive parts in these cycles, and the organization of different levels of reflexivity within the systems. We conclude that reflexivity of cognitive processes—rather than transitivity in specific forms of thought—is the defining criterion of rationality.
The paper looks into the contemporary state of the problem of decision-making and preference of some alternatives over others, discussing intransitivity of relations of superiority: one object is superior to another in a certain aspect, while the second is superior to the third and the third is superior to the first (A>B, B>C, C>A). The authors analyze two broad groups of theories and empirical studies reflecting opposite views on the nature of the relations and rationality of intransitivity of relations of superiority. The authors argue that understanding of intransitivity of superiority relations is no less important line of cognitive development than understanding of transitivity; they should be studied as complementary subjects. Thus it is necessary to study individual differences in cognitive sets with regard to transitivity/intransitivity of superiority, as well as individual characteristics of solving problems of that kind.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.