Феномен времени сквозь призму современной науки: Возможность нового понимания. Проблема времени в физике XXI века
The book is devoted to the problem of time. It examines both traditional and completely new concepts of time. The relevance of the topic is due to modern discoveries in the field of confirming the fundamental foundations of quantum mechanics, namely, experiments to check the Legetta-Garg inequalities, experiments with a "quantum eraser that confirm the effect of "interference in time ". These facts indicate the need to revise the concept of time and reality that has developed in modern physics and philosophy, to which this book is devoted. The authors consider the problem of time from the point of view of philosophy, logic and modern physics. For a wide range of readers interested in the problems of time.
To overcome the difficulties in studying the concept of time, the author proposes to analyze philosophical concepts and scientific theories from the point of view of two aspects of time that are not reducible to each other. These are: metric time and development time. It is shown that the division of time into two aspects is based on the philosophical tradition and helps to overcome the contradictions between the “frozen” time of the special theory of relativity and the observed “arrows of time” in cosmology, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. A number of arguments in favor of the popular philosophical concept of the block universe based on the equations of the special theory of relativity are analyzed. These arguments are shown to be based solely on the metric aspect of time. Arguments in favor of the informational nature of development time are considered.
The article is devoted to the problem of interpreting the concept of time in the context of some concepts of modern physics. This fundamental concept inevitably arises in physical theories, but there is still no adequate description of it in the philosophy of science. In the theory of relativity, quantum field theory, the standard model of elementary particle physics, the theory of loop quantum gravity, superstring theory, and other recent theories, the idea of time is explicitly or implicitly present. Sometimes, as, for example, in the special theory of relativity, it plays a pronounced role, sometimes not, but somehow it is and is implied by the content of the theory and in some cases by its mathematical apparatus. Especially important for solving the problem is the fundamental difference between the space-time processes of the microcosm and the macrocosm. In this connection, there is a need to understand time as it appears in modern physics, its description in the language of philosophy (there is also no satisfactory mathematical apparatus for describing time). This will make it possible to get closer to the answer to the question about the properties of time and, if not answered, then formulate the correct question about what it is. To this end, this study analyzes the key concepts of modern physics, taking into account the historical-scientific and historical-philosophical perspectives, which in some cases allows us to detect the continuity of ideas related to the understanding of time, their development, as well as the emergence of fundamentally new ones. In the course of the analysis, the characteristics of time that are correct from the point of view of physical theory are formulated, and an attempt is made to raise the question of the nature of time. Based on the work done, conclusions are drawn about the current state of the problem and the prospects for its solution.