The European Proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences EpSBS: MTSDT 2019
Currently, the problem of import substitution is a priority for federal and regional policies. Under the conditions of sanctions and the food embargo of Russia, most of the subjects of the Russian Federation found themselves in an ambiguous situation. On the one hand, there were problems with the provision of domestic production with imported raw materials, as well as the population with food, and on the other hand, new opportunities for development opened up for the regions. In this regard, the Government of the Russian Federation has taken a number of measures to support domestic import substitution. However, the experience of a number of foreign countries of the world has shown that the orientation towards domestic import substitution leads to a limitation of the country's development opportunities in the world market and is a step towards the export orientation of the national economy, but not an end in itself. At the same time, there are problems of inconsistency and duplication of measures within the framework of import substitution and export support policies. In addition, it is not easy to reach the goals and objectives of such policies set at the federal level, especially when it comes to peripheral regions with a small territorial system and limited resources for development. In our opinion, this contradiction can be resolved through the implementation of an export-oriented import substitution policy, which is based on a combination of tools for supporting import substitution and export activities.
Imagine There Were No Humanities
The paper concentrates on the problem of sociological classics in contemporary historical research. Since the mid-20th century, historians as well as other representatives of the humanities aspired to the scientization of their discipline. The process later was dubbed ‘the strategy of borrowing’ which implies that history can naturally rely on the theoretical apparatus of the social sciences. Since the 1960s, historiography has changed rapidly as the following model of interaction became established: a social science – a corresponding historical subdiscipline – the choice of macro- (and later also micro-) theory – and its application to historical material. For example, the theory of modernization and world-systems analysis were promptly taken up by historians as was a concept of symbolic power. Today we have many interesting examples of micro-history being modeled on micro-sociology through the use of corresponding concepts.
Talking about borrowing social theories by the historians, receptivity curves should be taken into consideration – the employment of strong theories usually begins later and continues when these are already losing popularity in adjacent disciplines. Examples from recent studies in social history could be offered to illuminate the problem.
It is admitted that the time when the idea of strict scientism of history was connected to the use of leading theories of sociology, has passed. Historians’ demand for a “grand theory” seems to exist still but sociology does provide for it minimally. After 1970s, sociologists were pushed out by classics of cultural and social anthropology, then – the representatives of performative turn, and of post-colonial criticism. One can conclude that sociological classics turned into a monument in contemporary historical discipline. The evolution of social history after cultural and linguistic turn overcame the limits set by the scientization of social history in the spirit of 1960s-70s.
History has discovered many other social disciplines. Unlike sociology, these are less influenced by scientism, although these are called social (communication, cultural studies, education, environment, human geography, linguistics, media, etc.). However, our research shows that the rejection of structuralism, functionalism, evolutionism, determinism, and monism did not lead to the rejection of the social strata, but to superficial and often “secondhand” appropriation of new sociological approaches and concepts, which transformed the sociological arsenal of history but did not introduce “new sociological classics” into the field of the discipline.
The article analyzes the characteristics of the program of Assistance to Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) in the United States. This program is aimed at support and subsequent commercialization of high technology developed by small firms. The government agencies involved in the implementation of the program determine the research areas manage the allocated funds themselves. The program has been in operation for over 30 years and has proven to be effective. It provides business with funds necessary at the primary, the most risky phase of production of innovative goods and services, and also gives signals to the market about popular areas of innovation development. Participation in the program is a guarantee of a high level for innovative product or service produced by the firm and allows companies to raise additional funds. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of the SBIR may be useful for the policy support of science and technology in Russia. The implementation of programs similar to SBIR in Russia will solve the actual problem of innovation development, to reduce information asymmetry in the market of innovative products and services and help in attracting venture capital in high-technology projects.
IX International students’conference: INNOVATIONS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Allowed languages: English, German, French, Spanish. List of the sections possible: 1. Engineering Innovations 2. Modern Information Technologies 3. Electronics 4. Natural Sciences 5. Social Sciences
The notion of humanities has various meanings – a discipline / an art / a space for speculative thinking / secular humanism etc. I will focus on the ‘discipline’. Humanities as well as social sciences are concerned with human aspects of the world. It is difficult to define a boundary between them, both in their subject, and in method, still social sciences are interpreted as more empirical and formalized, closer to the ‘ideal’ of sciences. It is remarkable that historical studies traditionally have been considered part of the humanities, although in modern Academia, history is occasionally classified as a social science. My aim is to demonstrate why history has not become a real social science, although in 1960-80s historians who represented the most advanced trends within the discipline aspired to this. I then extrapolate my conclusions to other disciplines of the humanities.
I think two topics are central here: uneasy relationship between social theories and methods, and indispensability of the cognitive potential of the humanities.
Since mid-20th c. as a result of the ‘socialization’ of the humanities historians have barely produced theories of their own; instead they borrowed theories from social sciences. However, while the borrowing of the theories of other disciplines proved to be workable, the adoption of the methods of social sciences – psychometric testing, sociometric monitoring, ethnographic description, in-depth interview, long-term observation and s.o. – was impossible. In the end, the impossibility of using the social sciences’ methods ensures resistibility of the humanities and enables to preserve their disciplinary core. At the same time the humanities dealing with meanings can catch things more ephemeral than trends, patterns, mechanisms and statistical rules.
To bring what is hidden into the open is the task of any discipline; the question is what the nature of the hidden. The mystery of the humanities is in its ‘softness’, which they cannot be rid of, and which makes them flexible. Flexibility is not only a generic quality of the humanities, it also implies a very different cognitive mechanism. The area of the humanities still contains a large pool of vague ideas, which have powerful heuristic potential (Die Sattelzeit, longue durée, the Carnival, archeology of knowledge, la mort de l'auteur, etc). Moreover, flexibility of the humanities often leads to metaphorization of even highly formalized concepts of social sciences (path dependence, thick description, symbolic power, social interaction, actor, etc) that expands the field of their application.
The general trend towards ‘scientization’ of social sciences and the humanities, especially in the late 20th c. is balanced or compensated by a reverse tendency – the growth of fictional moment linked wither to social imagination, fantasy and fiction (when a wave or yet another ‘turn’ in the humanities does not work linearly but overlaps with similar tendencies). In contemporary sociology the turn to ‘imagination’ is actual since Wright Mills, but is also relevant for classical texts (the juxtaposition of Max Weber and Thomas Mann, a non-fiction novel and the sociology of the Chicago School etc.). At the same time, the interpretation of the humanities as arts, and not only sciences, following the well-known formula of Art and Science does not show their weakness or immaturity but rather their flexibility at the moments of social crisis or the rise of anti-scientist mood. In the history of knowledge the closeness of art history or philology to contemporary artistic trends (as in Russian formalism, for example) went well with aiming to scientific innovation – against stagnating academism.
This volume consists of articles prepared after two conferences organized by the European Humanities University in Vilnius, Lithuania in 2011 and in 2012. The focus of both conferences was concentrated on the development of reforms and changes in higher education in the social sciences and humanities in Eastern Europe during the last two decades. The collapse of the communist system in Eastern Europe was followed by the enormous expansion of institutions of higher learning, especially in the field of social sciences and humanities. While responding to the great need of society for the education of urgently needed specialists in this area, most of the old and the newly established universities were confronted with a lack of professionals in this field. As a consequence, the overproduction of alleged specialists especially in subjects like law, business, management, and economics, has contributed to discrediting not only knowledge in these field, but also the value of education, consequently putting at risk the processes of transformation of post-totalitarian reality. The book addresses itself to the issues of possible steps of reforming the educational and institutional space in the Eastern European Universities.
This all-electronic, trans-disciplinary, authoritative, peer-reviewed reference work will still surprise students and researchers with new ways to understand subjects in the social and behavioral sciences. Even though information sources continue to multiply, a large, broad encyclopedia possesses an inherent capacity to enrich the research process. Both its format and its integrated articles encourage discovery and the building of contexts and connections. The second edition of the International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, first published in 2001, will take full advantage of advances in electronic publishing. The 2nd edition includes articles on rapidly evolving subjects (pysch, neuro, evolution, artificial intelligence, human/computer interaction).
As in the 1st edition, articles in the 2nd are written by top international researchers, professors, and scholars. The articles reveal the dynamics of current thinking about a given topic and discuss how it relates to other subjects.
Postdoctoral programmes have recently become an important step leading from doctoral education to permanent academic careers in the social sciences. This paper investigates the effects of a large and structured postdoctoral programme in the social sciences on a number of academic and non-academic outcomes of fellows. Propensity score matching is employed to match fellows with applicants with similar characteristics who did not receive the fellowship; then the outcomes in the treatment and control groups are compared. The programme has a statistically significant positive effect on the general life satisfaction of former fellows and their publication activity. It is argued that an active and collegial research environment, with training in academic skills during postdoctoral employment, may improve the academic outcomes of postdoctoral fellows.