Beijing Forum（2014）the Harmony of Civilizations and Prosperity for All—China and the World:Tradition, Reality and Future
“Social Investment and Impact Measurement” session proceedings
“Evaluation” as a new field for practice was firstly introduced in Russia in 2000 when the International Program Evaluation Network was established in the country. For the past 14 years, professional society of specialists in evaluation that have been formed in Russia. Following the international agenda, and studying foreign experience - are characteristics of the society. What we have now in practice of social impact measurement is that the system of indicators for measurement of social impact is forming by a client, in accordance to the project’s goals. Such systems as IRIS, GIIR, SROI and others are not actively used. So, we can use the formula “much in theory, and less in practice” for describing the current situation of social impact measurement in Russia. Social entrepreneurship which is actively developing in Russia now seems to be one of the factor that foster development of social impact measurement in the country.
The theoretical basis of work is the notion of legitimation as a complex mechanism of social approval of a new phenomenon taking place with the active participation of different social groups and structures, able to influence its final form. In the focus of the empirical analysis the representations of social entrepreneurship that main actors of its legitimacy in Russia have. Among them are: the state, foundations, NPOs and business. We assess the (in)consistency between their representations as well as the reflection of these representations in the characteristics of existing organizations of social entrepreneurship (social enterprises).
Business, government and NPOs are understood as external actors of social enterprise legitimation, as without their recognition the legitimation will not take place. In turn, social enterprises, regardless of whether they come from for-profit or non-profit sector, are seen as objects of legitimation, or as a new actor, not identical to any of the above. It is shown that the contradictions in the positions of key actors can lead to mutually exclusive projects of legitimation of a new phenomenon, so that they will undermine the cognitive and moral legitimacy of each other. The empirical data include the results of the authors survey of 202 social enterprises.
An IT security vulnerability can be considered as an inherent weakness in a target system that could be exploited by a threat source. The underlying hypothesis in our proposal is that each identified attribute associated with the target entity to be controlled should show the highest quality satisfaction level as an elementary indicator. The higher the quality indicator value achieved per each attribute, the lower the vulnerability indicator value and therefore the potential impact from the risk standpoint. In the present work, we discuss the added value of supporting the IT security and risk assessment areas with measurement and evaluation (M&E) methods and strategy, which are based on metrics and indicators. Also we illustrate excerpts of an M&E case study for characteristics and attributes of Security, and their potential risk assessment.
The environment of entrepreneurial activity is numerous and heterogeneous. It includes a large number of components, which have a different extent, nature and frequency of impact on the organization. The question of assessment methodology of the entrepreneurial activity strategic risk factors is sufficiently important. The aim of this study is to develop an assessment methodology model of the strategic risk factors of entrepreneurial activity with the application of a scenario-based approach to identify dependencies of the risk factors using statistical data for 10 years. By strategic risk factors are understood changes in the external common business environment. The following methods were used in this study: a) questionnaire of entrepreneurs and managers of small and medium enterprises, the Central Bank staff and scientists on the subject of selection of indicators characterizing the external business environment; b) correlation analysis; c) regression analysis; d) Delphi approach; e) scenario analysis methods. As a result of the conducted study the main factors influencing the entrepreneurial activity to the fullest degree were identified. Furthermore, a working hypothesis concerning the fact, that increase of standalone strategic risk factors not always exerts negative influence on the entrepreneurial activity was confirmed. The proposed tools of risk factors assessment and their influence on the entrepreneurial activity may be used both for assessment of the organization environment and for assessment of various risk situations aimed at further use of the obtained information when making decisions.
Purpose – This paper aims to depict foresight programmes as extended service encounters between foresight practitioners, sponsors, and other stakeholders. The implications of this perspective for evaluating the outcomes of such programmes are to be explored.
Design/methodology/approach – The range of activities comprising foresight is reviewed, along with the various objectives that may underpin these activities. The more substantial foresight programmes are seen in terms of a series of steps, in each of which various partners can be involved in generating service outcomes and later steps of the process. The arguments are illustrated with insights drawn from various cases.
Findings – A foresight programme is likely to feed into more than one policy process, so that the foresight activities can be linked to various stages of the policy cycles, as well as engaging participants with different degrees of inﬂuence on the policies in question. The outcomes of the foresight activity are also heavily shaped by the degree of involvement of various stakeholders, not least the sponsoring agency and any other groups it seeks to mobilise. Seeing foresight as a service activity brings to the fore the notion of co-production, and the importance of the design of the service encounters involved.
Research limitations/implications – The task of evaluating foresight is a challenging one, and comparison of foresight activities needs to bear in mind the different scale, scope, and ambitions of different programmes. Simple static comparison of formal inputs and outputs will miss much of the value and value-added of the activity.Practical implications – A dynamic approach to evaluation stresses the learning of lessons about the roles of multiple stakeholders – and the responsibilities of sponsors as well as practitioners. Originality/value – Foresight programmes are frequently commissioned, and often have signiﬁcant inﬂuence on decision-making. Attempts to systematically evaluate these efforts have begun, and this essay stresses the need to be aware of the complex interactive nature of foresight, highlighted by viewing it in service terms.
This article traces the transformation of a genre of the review, traditional for the Russian journalism. This article offers the description of the speech structure of the review, based on the semantic category of an evaluation. The contemporary review occurrs not within a discourse of culture anymore, but also as a part of political or marketing communication within media environment.