INTED2020 Proceedings. 14th International Technology, Education and Development Conference Valencia, Spain. 2-4 March, 2020.
The transition of compulsory school education to models that foster 21-century learning outcomes such as creativity, critical thinking, communication, and collaboration is a typical educational policy strategy among many leading countries. An increase in the competitiveness of Russian education is declared to be an important aim in Russian policy statements. Implementation of novel teaching methods that lead to students’ mastering of basic skills, increasing motivation and engagement are challenges that Russian society is facing nowadays. However, the implementation of constructivist forms of pedagogy has its own history in Russia. Attempts to institutionalize those innovative developments are usually associated with perestroika and the 1990s. Despite these attempts, there has always been a big gap between the mass school and this “avant-garde search”. Teaching practices in most schools remain to be conservative and desperate to students’ involvement and their cognitive development. Teachers’ beliefs, dispositions, mental models are said to be an important factor of resistance towards changes in school. They influence how teachers percept phenomena, make judgements and behave in the classroom. Beliefs are determined by personal knowledge, life and work experience. Being closely connected to the knowledge that teacher has (content knowledge, knowledge of child’s psychology, procedural knowledge of how to deliver a lesson), teachers’ beliefs nevertheless own a significant affective component. Thus, beliefs become a filter that helps teachers to interpret new phenomena. In this work, teachers' beliefs about barriers towards implementation of creativity-fostering teaching practices, such as cross-curricular learning, inquiry-based learning, assessment for learning, are examined. 15 focus groups with 144 teachers of primary and secondary school were conducted in 6 schools in the Moscow region. We used the guide developed together with our colleagues while working on the project “Key competencies and new literacy” of the Institute of Education HSE. Using the methodology of qualitative content analysis, we distinguished the main groups of barriers from the teachers’ perspective. The barriers teachers mention most frequently are: 1) unpreparedness of students, 2) lack of qualification, 3) overloaded curriculum and standardized testing, 4) rigid organization of lessons and school subjects, 5) inadequacy of existing learning materials, 6) absence of support from parents and principal. Most of these barriers are mentioned in research literature worldwide. However, two barriers are highlighted only by Russian teachers. Those are the perception of students as being not prepared for changes and belief that resources to foster creativity that already exist are inadequate.
This study examines territorial differences in Russian students' choice of educational trajectory after secondary school between 2000 – 2014, between regions in various socio-economic and cultural contexts. The Russian case might be interesting for the social and economic gap between Russian provinces, which is comparable to other countries differences: some regions, equal to Singapore or the Netherlands in GDP per capita, while others are similar to Honduras or Bolivia. These differences in economic development, among other things, are also associated with the gap in human capital, which is traditionally measured through the level of education of the population. In the Russian system of education, the actual choice of educational trajectory takes place at the end of secondary school, when children should choose between the academic track, which presumes admission to the high school and university after that, and the vocational track, which includes admission to vocational college. Since 2000th, the proportion of secondary school graduates, who chose the academic trajectory, has declined in most of the Russian regions, despite growing access to higher education, thanks to the raise in the number of universities between 2000-2008 with simultaneous demographic decline. With the dynamic time warping algorithm and time series cluster analysis, six different types of regional situations were identified, in the dynamics of the percentage of students who chose the academic track after secondary school. In general, in the most economically advantaged regions with a developed infrastructure of higher education, the popularity of the academic trajectory remains at the same high level. But also there were some decreases in 2009 and 2013, which could be a consequence of the world economic crises in those years. These crises became additional factors at the regional level, for the families in the more developed territories, to re-evaluate their children's chances for higher education and the associated costs. At the same time, the proportion of students on the academic track in more economically disadvantaged regions, with lower access to higher education, has gradually decreased since 2000. These students faced a “double penalty” because they had to plan their education strategy, taking into account higher competition for places in universities, or moving to other regions to enter educational institutions there, which was also associated with growing costs. In this situation, the vocational track becomes a more affordable alternative for students from regions with a lower level of economic and social development. As the result of the analysis, it is possible to determine short and long term prerequisites for further growth in the human capital gap between Russian regions and, consequently, the growing differences in economic development.