Семантический атлас нефтегазовой отрасли
Resource nationalism is a central concept in the contemporary debates on energy policy. Through an extensive review of literature, this paper identifies the emerging questions on resource nationalism in the last two decades and offers a new conceptualization based on emerging trends in the oil sector. The first section focuses on the conceptualization of resource nationalism, offering an alternative definition and arguing for the necessity of a composite measure. The second section analyzes business-state relations in the oil sector and the arguments on determinants of resource nationalism. The last section compares old and new methods of resource nationalism with an emphasis on three main developments identified in the literature: 1) the change in motives that marks a shift from ideological reasons to pragmatism in state policies; 2) the change in methods from nationalization to creeping expropriation; and 3) the change in actor configuration with the increasing dominance of national oil companies vis-à-vis international oil companies.
The research is devoted to the investigation into Mexican Oil Industry development
trends and its positions on the world oil market, with the purpose to identify
main challenges and perspectives. The sector demonstrated negative dynamics during
the last decade, that resulted in a loss of international competitiveness in oil exploration
and processing. Primary ways to develop Mexican oil industry include cooperation with
international companies, actualization of oil extraction and oil refining geography, implementation
of complex support at the state-level and step-by-step implementation of
Over the past two years, the Federal Antimonopoly Service of the Russian Federation (from now on referred to as FAS) raised the issue of the internal gas market's efficiency, as well as possible scenarios for its partial or complete deregulation. Previously several times settled task has been discussed in the context of the transition to market pricing of wholesale gas volumes and the preservation of state regulation regarding tariffs for the transportation of gas through the Unified Gas Supply System (from now referred to as UGSS). However, to date, the regulation of the domestic gas market, pricing rules and tariffs for transportation have not changed significantly, except for somehow development of the gas exchange trading (SPIMEX), which nevertheless also has some problems and constraints to the development of open market trade.
The main criticism in this issue is the currently applied pricing regime, which consists in the presence on the over-the-counter (OTC) market of monopolistically regulated prices and the so-called open pricing mechanism, and exchange prices on the Saint Petersburg International Mercantile Exchange (SPIMEX) gas exchange, respectively. Experts agree that such a system leads to an asymmetry of the market, and, as a consequence, its inefficiency, unequal position of players in the market, as well as risks of a serious shift of the balance towards one player in case of a significant change in gas market regulation. In this regard, each separate proposal of the FAS on reforming the domestic gas market, whether it relates to the division of the dominant seller into production and transportation or the abolition of price regulation, faces severe contradictions on the each player's side. Thus, the pilot project in three subjects of the Russian Federation (Tyumen Region, Yamal-Nenets, and Khanty-Mansiysk Regions) was discussed to be settled in 2016 on the abolition of the lower boundary of the monopolistic regulated gas price for industrial consumers. The project, however, has not been implemented due to the reason mentioned above for the disagreements of all interested parties.
Such aspects further exacerbate this problem as the share of the gas industry in exports, and, in particular, the export of liquefied natural gas (from now on LNG). The role of LNG in the transformation of global, regional gas markets has been noted over the past decade by the IEA and Russia, as one of the players in this industry, is also setting strengthening rules the positions of Russian gas companies in LNG markets as one of the country's developments priorities.
The paper briefly examines the proposed reforms on the abolition of the gas price lower limit for industrial consumers in the context of the impact on independent gas producers, their market position, market value, and credit rating. Also, the work considers the development of exchange trade in natural gas, as an indicator of open pricing and related problems.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.