History & Mathematics: Big History Aspects
Our Yearbook ‘History and Mathematics’ has already celebrated its 10th anniversary and has confidently entered its second decade. The common feature of all our Yearbooks, including the present volume, is the usage of formal methods and social studies methods in their synthesis to analyze different historical phenomena.
The present Yearbook (which is the seventh in the series) is subtitled ‘Big History Aspects’. This issue is devoted to the problems of evolutionary development of the world. In no way will it be a digression from the direction which we have initially defined for our Yearbook, but just an extension of the scope of the research. The matter is that there are two kinds of history: the history of nature (or more exactly the Universe and the Earth) and the history of humans and mankind. It is not surprising that the idea of historicism penetrated almost every scientific field. At the same time the search for common foundations of this endless in its diversity world has intensified. One of the directions of this interdisciplinary search for the unity of the world in its diversity is Universal Evolutionism (Big History). Mathematical and formal methods help to understand much deeply both natural and human history.
This issue of the Yearbook consists of four main sections: (I) Patterns of Big History; (II) Hypotheses of Deep Big History; (III) Biological Aspects; (IV) History and Future of Social Systems.
We hope that this issue will be interesting and useful both for historians and mathematicians, as well as for all those dealing with various social and natural sciences
Our Yearbook ‘History and Mathematics’ has already celebrated its 10th anniversary and has confidently entered its second decade. In this regard it will be quite reasonable to try to extend the scope of its research field. Therefore, this issue is designed in an unusual manner while still preserving the relevance for our approach (see about it below). It also makes sense to remind the reader of the various aspects that were touched upon in the previous issues.
The present paper analyzes the evolution of technology from the beginning of the human history. We introduce a new paradigm to analyze the causes and trends of the global evolution. We also describe the direction of technological transformations, discuss and explain the present and forthcoming technological changes.
Our analysis of technological evolution mainly focuses on the second half of the 20th century. We present a detailed analysis of the latest technological revolution which we denote as ‘Сybernetic’, and give some forecasts about its development up to the end of the 21st century. It is shown that the development of various self-regulating systems will be the main trend of this revolution. We argue that the technological transition of the final phase of the Cybernetic Re- volution will start in medicine, which is to be the keystone of technological convergence forming the system of MANBRIC-technologies (based on medicine, additive, nano, bio, robotic, IT and cognitive technologies). Today we are at the threshold of post-human revolution, the era of an intensive impact on the human body. The authors consider the directions of this revolution such as considerable life extension, organ replacement, BCIs, robotics, genome editing, etc. It is very important to understand the mechanisms of technological deve- lopment and to measure the possible risks arising from them.