Die Wikinger: Entdecker und Eroberer
Popular book about the history and culture of the Vikings, with all contributions authored by specialists in the respective field
Outline of the connections between Vikings (Varangians, Rus') and Central Asia, in particular their link to the trade on the Silk Road
В работе рассматривается судьба династического имени Святослав и его женского варианта -- Святослава – в 10-11 вв. Продемонстрирована теснейшая связь между выбором имени и вопросами властных привилегий в Средние века, предложены некоторые гипотезы, объясняющие появление славянского имени Святослав в скандинавских по происхождению династиях.
The article is about a new edited volume on medieval Novgorod, its history and culture, published in France. It alыo touches upon issues approached in this book.
The critique of Francis Thomson constitutes only part of Ostrowski’s book. The other
part, completely unrelated to the first one, is dedicated to a comparison of the in- tellectual development of the two halves of the Christian world in the Middle Ages.
Ostrowski’s assertion that the Byzantines did not include logic in their school cur- riculum is untrue. What seems to him to be the main difference between East and
West does not take root until the end of the 12th century. The West was drifting away from the common patterns of ancient Mediterranean civilization. The East largely remained the same. The Byzantines did not feel any special inclination toward the practical application of theoretical ideas. The people of Old Rus’, on the contrary, were quick at learning and innovating. Respect for tradition inevitably played a smaller role in a nascent culture than in a culture that had been born old.
The article dedicates the process of conquest of various communities of Eastern Slavs by the polity of the first Rurikids in the 10th century. The stages of expansion of the Kiev princes from Oleg and Igor to Vladimir Svyatoslavich are described.
The article continues the study of historical geography and trade routes of Eastern Europe of the 9th century. It analyzes the map of the archeological finds connected with the culture of medieval Scandinavians and other inhabitances of Northern Europe (arms, jewelry etc.). The map of these finds is compared with the map of hoards of the 9th century, which allows asserting that in a number of cases the places of the finds of Scandinavian artifacts and hoards coincide. Once again this fact is testimony to the participation of Scandinavians in the transit of silver coins across Eastern Europe. The data analysis of terminus post quem of the settlements connected with the presence of the Scandinavians in Eastern Europe allows to assert that all those settlements (except Ladoga and Rurikovo Gorodische) appeared in the early 10th century, and till the end of the 9th century there were no fixed Scandinavian settlements outside the regions of the Volkhov and the Ilmen’. The areas, where the series of sing finds were found give the reason to mark the limits of arrival of the Scandinavian (Northern) pioneers. We argue that the 9th century was a special period in the history of Eastern Europe, the use of the later historical data (above all, concerning the 10th century) for the reconstruction of the historical processes of this century methodologically is inappropriate.
Result of a Franco-Russian project (CNRS – Russian Academy of Sciences), this publication presents the latest advances of recent research on the Vikings in a multidisciplinary and comparative perspective across Eastern Europe. It proposes a reflection on the dynamics of cultural exchanges analysed as a process of interactions that have traversed ethnic or social groups, countries, religious beliefs and practices, generations, genders. Questions concerning the specificities of these processes and the reciprocal transformations of Scandinavian settlements and local societies (Frankish, Anglo-Saxon, Slavic, Finnish) are posed. A large part is devoted to the actors involved in these changes (elites, merchants, ecclesiastics, artisans, women, skalds, historiographers...), and the places or areas where they took place. This publication thus participates to the broader reflection on the notions discussed concerning acculturation, cultural transfers and the “middle ground” whose heuristic interest goes far beyond the phenomenon of Scandinavian expansion during the Viking era
Dynastic life in medieval Europe was subject to a complex network ofnorms, rules, and prohibitions. Some of these were recorded in writing,although, as a rule, with a signiÞcant delay, when the rules themselveswere about to fall out of use. Others, despite remaining unwritten, regu-lated many aspects of everyday dynastic life, which repeatedly conÞrmedtheir existence. This refers not only to ceremonial and dynastic etiquette,but also to a kind of family predestination compelling various dynastymembers and their immediate circle to take on certain roles and behave incertain ways and not others.
Scandinavian motifs, both religious and related to arts and crafts, are typically deprived of their religious content in the process of Christianization as percieved in Old Rus' literature in which myths are treated as faded histories or legends.
That there were contacts between Byzantium and the Viking world is well-known in outline, and many scholars have published work on particular aspects of those contacts. But our literary sources offer very few narratives of these contacts, beyond Byzantine accounts of Rus attacks and the Rus’ Primary Chronicle’s materials on Russo-Byzantine trade-agreements and the conversion of Prince Vladimir c.988. Not only are narrative sources lacking for contacts between Byzantium and the wider Viking world: we also lack a conceptual framework within which to place the numerous and disparate items of evidence of contacts. As a result, modern works of synthesis on the subject are exceedingly rare, and seldom very effective. The book that we aim to publish soon should amount to an illuminating, authoritative synthesis. Among the contributors are archaeologists and specialists in runes, numismatics, sagas, and Byzantine literary sources.