Волонтерство и благотворительность в России и задачи национального развития: докл. к XX Апр. междунар. науч. конф. по проблемам развития экономики и общества, Москва, 9–12 апр. 2019 г.
In the context of aging one of key purposes of social policies in different countries is to improve subjective wellbeing of older generation as an important characteristic of quality of life. Social ties and social activities are essential to subjective wellbeing in the old age. The article investigates the influence of formal and nonformal social activities on the levels of happiness among people aged 50 and over in the European countries and Russia. Analysis is based on the data of the sixth wave of the European Social Survey (ESS, 2012). Multilevel models were used to study countryspecific variations. Findings show that both components of social activity have positive impacts on the levels of happiness, however nonformal social activity (interactions with friends and relatives) plays a greater role than formal activities (volunteering). For the most part, the confidence intervals of crosscountry residuals do not cross the zero line; this points to substantial differences in the countryspecific levels of happiness and proves the feasibility of methods used in the study.
A study of discursive identities oppositions in terms of the two semantically close words denoting "volunteers", the one being a local Russian word and the other, an international one, reveals some typical meanings of volunteer participation in Russian volunteer movement. It is shown that the differences between "volunteer" and local "dobrovolets (good-willer)" conceptualized in two main lines: (1) as an opposition of the references to the country's history and to contemporary social and linguistic contexts, (2) as an opposition of the native word, which is clear to understand to a foreign language word, whose meaning cannot intuitively be caught. Temporal oppositions have ambivalent connotations, while, for example, contemporary volunteerism is referred to ‘actions’ and ‘old-fashioned dobrovol’chestvo is referred to ‘real deeds’.
Russian NGO sector includes various sectors of volunteer organizations. One of these is social volunteerism which is in the focus of the reviewed monograph. Social volunteerism is described as a complex phenomenon, including multiple aspects such as the structure and organization of the volunteer group, the role of a coordinator, and the relationship with government agencies. The moograph dispels a popular myth which argues that volunteerism has a zero cost. The case studies show that volunteer organizations bear expenses relating to the recruitment and training of volunteers, their retraining and the employment of experts. Significant attention is focused on the issue of the professional burn-out of volunteers and methods to prevent the burn-out.