Районы, штаты и города США: Хрестоматия в 3 частях: К 80-летию Л.В. Смирнягина.
The article examines special politically-legal and social status of Muslim community in the USA. Not only positive experience of ethnopolitical integration is described, but also a number of problems connected to this situation.
The purpose of this paper is to explain relations between socioeconomic factors and gender longevity gap and to test a number of contradicting theories.
Fixed effects models are used for cross-country panel data analysis.
The authors show that in developed countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and European Union) a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women’s aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men’s unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. There is also some evidence that the effect of the share of women in parliaments has a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a four-year lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.
Findings are valid only for developed countries.
The findings are important for policy discussions, such as designs of pension schemes, gender-based taxation, ecological, urban, health and labor policy.
The factors that increase male and female longevities also reduce the gender longevity gap.
The results contradict to a number of studies for developing countries, which show that lower economic development and greater women discrimination result in a lower gender longevity gap.
The study of the problems of spatial development and management of the territories of economic development of the Russian North and the Arctic finds relevance within the implementation of the tasks outlined in the Strategy of spatial development of the Russian Federation and the State program of socio-economic development of the Arctic zone for the foreseeable future. Providing the sustainable development and spatial connectivity of the Arctic regions is necessary for the development and practical application of effective organizational and economic solutions.
The paper analyzes the state policy in the field of socio-economic development of the Arctic regions of Russia, assesses the role of the Northern sea route as an important driver of development of the Arctic regions. Based on the analysis, key conclusions are drawn about the factors such as low population density, low level of infrastructure development, significant distance from the main industrial bases of the country, unfavorable climate for living and economic activity etc which affect and increase the risks of economic activity on spatial development of the Arctic regions.
In these conditions, the priorities of the Strategy of spatial development of the Arctic zone of Russia should be the modernization of its entire transport and logistics system. The most effective forms of spatial organization of the economy and its governance may be territorial clusters, as well as territories
of advanced socio-economic development. They could help in ensuring the implementation of an integrated approach to the development of the Arctic territories and contributing to the diversification of the Arctic region’s economy, attracting investment and thereby improving the quality of life of the population.
The practical significance of the conclusions lies in the possibility of their use in updating strategies and programs for the development of the regions of the Russian North and the Arctic in order to form an effective mechanism of governance for coordinating economic activities and providing an integrated approach to the development of these territories.
Within a brief historical period, BRICS as an inter-State association has become an influential player in the world economy and politics. BRICS is a primarily political entity, and in that regard, the BRICS grouping correlates with the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). However, not all the expectations placed on the SCO by the founding countries at the time of its creation in 2001 have been met so far. The question is to what extent expectations may be fulfilled in case of BRICS.
The paper reveals main problems of mortality statistics, including recorded causes of death. Miscoding of homicides, self-harm, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease distorts the actual mortality statistics as to causes of death. There are a number of problems with completion of death certificates, measuring infant mortality, and estimating life expectancy. The paper provides recommendations for improving the system of forensic examination and enhancing coordination between statistical bodies, health bodies, and police. Other important conditions for improving the quality of mortality statistics are increased demographic literacy and a growing standard of living of the population.