СОВРЕМЕННОЕ ПОЛЕ СЕМЕЙНОЙ ПСИХОТЕРАПИИ
Based on the data obtained from the survey (n=733) among students, conducted among first-year students of the faculty of psychology of Moscow State University and among the clients of the veterinary surgeon in 2008-2012, we have analyzed the dependence of the frequency of occurrence of pets, which respondents considered “family member”, on the age of child/children in the family at the time of their purchase. Our findings may indicate a nonrandom occurrence of pets in families. The decision to purchase a pet, apparently, occurs at moments of acute anxiety in the family associated with the normative crises of passage stages of the life cycle: the separation of children (school age and the notorious “teenage” crisis). Pets, due to the nature of their communication (emotional) relationships with people, can stabilize the family system in times of crises. Key words: pet, systemic approach, triangulation, family psychology, family normative crises, animal-children relationships.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.