Migration from the Newly Independent States: 25 years after the collapse of the USSR
This book discusses international migration in the newly independent states after the collapse of the Soviet Union, which involved millions of people. Written by authors from 15 countries, it summarizes the population movement over the post-Soviet territories, both within the newly independent states and in other countries over the past 25 years. It focuses on the volume of migration flows, the number and socio-demographic characteristics of migrants, migration factors and the situation of migrants in receiving countries. The authors, who include demographers, economists, geographers, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists, used various methods and sources of information, such as censuses, administrative statistics, the results of mass sample surveys and in-depth interviews. This heterogeneity highlights the multifaceted nature of the topic of migration movements.
In recent years, ‘the Kyrgyz infrastructure’ began to develop in Moscow: ‘Kyrgyz clinics’, kindergartens, courses for preparing children for school, and real estate agencies made their appearance in the city. This infrastructure emerged as a result of the social exclusion of labor migrants in Russia. The Kyrgyz people have a special status in Russia as citizens of the EAEU. Despite this fact, they, like other migrants, face discrimination in the labor market and in accessing medical assistance. The article analyzes the emergence of the infrastructure created by migrants in Moscow and the reasons why the Kyrgyz community succeeded in this endeavor.
The authors consider how the size and characteristics of labor migration ﬂows in the post-Soviet space have transformed living conditions in the origin and destination areas. Post-Soviet labor migration annually involves several million people. In consequence, the well-being of millions of households in the relatively poor countries of origin of migrant workers (in the recent past, Azerbaijan; now, Armenia, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine) depends on the export of labor. In the countries of destination, primarily in the main center of the regional (Eurasian) migration system, Russia, as well as in Kazakhstan, migrant workers have occupied important niches in the labor market, substantially contributing to the functioning of selected sectors of the economy and meeting the needs of private households. Labor migration in the postSoviet space is characterized by a large proportion of undocumented migrants and the predominance of low-skilled workers.
The chapter provides a detailed analysis of trends and major factors of permanent migration between the former Soviet republics that have involved millions people. The authors analyze how the Eurasian migration system has been transformed over the last quarter of a century. Whereas the 1990s were characterized by mass migration (repatriation) of the Russian-speaking population from the Baltic States, Transcaucasia and Central Asia to Russia, as well as Belarus and Ukraine, the following years saw significant increases in the movement of the indigenous peoples of Central Asia to Russia and Kazakhstan. At the same time, the migration ties of Turkmenistan and Georgia with the former Union republics have significantly weakened, and the flows of migrants from Ukraine and Moldova have begun to reorient themselves toward the European Union. The chapter shows that large-scale migration in the 1990s-2000s on the territory of the former USSR has led to the redistribution of human capital in favor of Russia.
During many years Tajikistan has been the world leader in terms of the ratio of remittances to GDP. Late 2000s and early 2010s were the years of migration boom when the country’s dependence on financial streams from migration was established and the effects of migration started being evident. Much of these effects were driven by the characteristics of migrants and their households and the context of the country. This chapter reviews recent evidence on the effects that migration has on the lives of households in Tajikistan. Using data from a panel household survey, this chapter describes migrants’ profile and factors of migration decision with a special focus on migrant skills and their households’ wealth.
This chapter summarizes the issues of emigration from the countries that formed the Commonwealth of Independent States immediately after the breakup of the USSR some 25 years ago, to non-CIS countries. It is based on various statistical sources from host countries and migration databases of international organizations (Eurostat, OECD, UN Population Division, UNESCO, UNHCR). The scale of emigration from the former Soviet republics was massive. There were two emigration periods, each having its own geography, intensity, and reasons. The emigration outflow was strongest in the 1990s. Its size and geography were largely determined by the repatriation movement of Germans, Jews, Greeks, and economic and political consequences of the breakup of the USSR. In the 2000s, the geography of emigration from the CIS expanded and become in line with global mobility trends. As a result, new migrant communities emerged in many countries. Permanent residents from post-Soviet countries are especially numerous in Germany, Israel, the USA and Italy.