Эпистемология сегодня. Идеи, проблемы, дискуссии
The conception of embodied, embedded, extended and enactive cognition (the so-called 4E cognition), the foundation of which was laid by Francisco Varela, Evan Thompson, Andy Clark, Alva Noë and others, is becoming increasingly popular nowadays in cognitive science, philosophy of mind and epistemology. The holistic view of cognition and activity of a cognizing subject is under development. Instead of the former dichotomy and sharp division of subject and object, of mind and body of a knowing creature, an organism, and environment of its life and cognition, their integration and cyclic determination are being justified. The subject and object of cognition are in a certain cyclical and mutually determining relationship: they are co-emerging and renewing from each other emergent entities. Mind, or consciousness, is embodied, bodily determined, whereas the body is intelligent, cognizing, body lives, moves, acts and knows. The rigid separation of a living organism and environment that is known and mastered by it has been also overcome: the body of a living organism is distributed; it is embedded in the environment, which is in part the world created by it, converted to its own needs. The subject of cognition, or cognitive agent, whether human or animal, is viewed as an active and interactive one: it is actively built into an environment; its cognitive activity is accomplished through its en-action and building into the surrounding world, i.e. its en-activation. Cognition, including perception, thinking, and imagination, is closely connected with action. Within the framework of this conception, it is possible to bridge the gap between life sciences, such as the theory of biological evolution, neurophysiology, the theory of psychomotor action, and the philosophical theory of cognition (epistemology) and to understand life, cognition and action of mind in their harmonious interactions and in their relationship to the phenomenological studies of personal experience and subjectivity of man.