Slavery in the Late Antique World, 200–700 CE
This volume explores social, political, religious, and aesthetic aspects of slave-owning, and the experience of being a slave, in late antiquity
This paper explores the use of legal imagery in 5th century homilies by Christian authors from Asia Minor writing in Greek. I particularly focus on the idea of legally framed 'redemption' of sinners by Christ.
This article deals with the urgent legislative and criminological issues of combating trafficking of human beings. The author analyzes principal trends in slavery legislation, transformation of slavery from legal economic activity to criminal activity, and also gives a brief overview of slavery and trafficking of human beings as a social phenomenon. Main subjects of the article are Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings, its issues and drafting, comparison of the Russian criminal law on trafficking of human beings (art. 1271, 1272 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation) with corresponding propositions of the civil law of the Russian Federation (sale-purchase, permutation etc.). In the final part the article gives examples of actual legal norms, taken from legislature of the countries, leading in the process of combating trafficking of human beings (such as USA and countries of the European Union), and describes the current condition of the Russian legislature on trafficking of human beings and its expected efficiency.
This article reviews the institutional economics researches of slavery and serfdom. The exploration of the comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages of forced labor enriches various historical studies. On the example of the Great Princedom of Moscow, author considers reasons for establishment of the serfdom and how it affected the distribution of welfare.
This article is dedicated to the II Council of Seville (A.D. 619) and its decisions. This Council was presided over famous Isidore of Seville, a great expert of Classical culture and in particolary in Roman law. Thanks to Isidore the canons of its Council were influenced by the norm of Theodosian Code. In that way the Roman Law became a base of the Canonical Law.
The present thesis is a study of Athanasios of Alexandria‘s thought and writings—predominantly pastoral—in the context of ecclesial, ascetic, and liturgical developments in fourth-century Christian communities in Egypt. I explore Athanasios‘ Festal Letters, individual correspondence (primarily the Letter to Markellinos), and the Life of Antony from the perspective of the bishop‘s concerns about the contemporaneous diversity of devotional and liturgical practices of praying and hymn-singing. The central argument of this thesis is that Athanasios had a coherent vision of the ideal Christian prayer and hymnody. For Athanasios, 'orthodox‘ Christians—lay and ascetics, educated devotees and common believers alike—should derive their practices of devotion and liturgy from the Bible—the Psalter and the Biblical odes—rather than other sources. Athanasios‘ programme of devotional and liturgical orthopraxy centred around the Biblical ideal is part of his much broader ecclesiological project of bringing unity to the division-riddled church of Egypt. The bishop conceives of the Scripturally-cued shared patters of praying and hymn-singing as one of the means to unify scattered Christian communities. Although his pastoral programme of a uniform Biblical devotion is not as self-consciously and combatively formulated as e.g. his polemic against the 'Arians‘ or Meletians, it surfaces across his writings with consistency. Targeted against the diversity of modes of prayer and hymn-singing practiced across a variety of doctrinally, ecclesially, and socially different communities, Athanasios‘ pastoral programme of devotional orthopraxy reflected the trends towards unification in the bishop-led Christian culture of late antiquity and contributed to their further strengthening.
Crimea, Caucasus, and the Black Sea region in general became in the fourteenth – fifteenth centuries a major slave-exporting area that supplied Europe. The Italian colonies, mainly those in Caffa and Tana, were the transit points of this involuntary circulation of people. The Genoese of Caffa were large-scale slave traders, acting both on their own and through middlemen, effectively becoming the monopolists on the slave market, bringing captives to the Western Europe, the urban centres of Balkans and Asia Minor, and Mameluck Egypt. This circulation of people shaped the mixed, entangled, and multicultural societies of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were a period of changes of the sources of slave supply, which shifted from the Caucasus to Eastern Europe (the Golden Horde, the Russian lands, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). Some cases of enslavement of people, their further circulation, liberation, integration in the Italian societies provides enlightening insights on the nature and operation of this trade within the Italian colonial environment.
The present volume mainly contains studies that served to maintain and continue the scientific legacy of Heinz Heinen. Thematically they revolve around one of the research focuses of Heinen, the northern Black Sea region with its ethnic, cultural and political, especially dynastic interrelations. A central concern of the authors is to question traditional ideas of ethnicity and culture and their influence on political conditions. The historical-geographical references of the contributions, the publication of which in the Geographica Historica is more than justified, are diverse, especially as they add new aspects to research in a region from the perspective of their topic, to which earlier volumes of the series are dedicated. In addition, this publication is a welcome opportunity to express our personal solidarity with Heinz Heinen.
This book includes the abstracts of leading foreign and russian scholars in the palaeography, codicology, sphragistics and other auxiliary historical disciplines (with special emphasis on the manuscript collections of Saint-Petersburg).