25-th Anniversary Conference of the Chinese Studies Program in Sofia University “St. Kliment Ohridski”
The article examines new Chinese words in relation to social situation in modern PRC. Analysis of neologisms helps to make the conclusions about the main processes taking place in the cultural, economic and social life of the community nowadays, as well as reveal those trends that will define the social and economic climate in the country in the coming years. The vocabulary of modern Chinese people, especially the young citizens, quickly adding new lexical units, which fast become widespread thanks to the Internet community. That cases that this research is based both on the new words, officially recorded in last edition of the "Dictionary of Modern Chinese Language", and on the neologisms that became popular in the Internet in recent years, but not included in the dictionary. Due to the huge number of new words that have appeared over the last decade, this study aims to allocate certain lexical units, mainly analyze those words that closely related to the reform of the social system and economic life: including the names of certain groups of citizens with atypical behavioral models, specific property or marital status. A number of neologisms also linked to the new cultural concepts and value-orientations of young people.
Keywords: neologisms, Chinese language, Chinese society, sociolinguistics, policy of birth control in PRC, language of the Internet.
This text book can be used for studying Chinese at the first and second years in high schools and universities. The text book is a complete model of the educational process, has a clear logical structure that allows you to use this tutorial for self-study language. The main purpose of education is the formation and development of intercultural communicative competence that sufficient to achieve the socio-communicative and professional goals.
This paper examines the main approaches to the creation of modern foreign language courses”. The authors analyzed approaches to teaching Chinese language, existing in Russia and abroad. Presented results were already obtained in the process of implementing an educational project of the Higher School of Economics named "Speak freely". According to the results of this work authors selected the methodological approach that best suits the purpose of the course. It has been found an effective solution to combine these approaches in a single discipline "Practice of verbal communication in Chinese", that mainly aimed at developing students' communicative competence.
In this paper, I attempt to compare the relative rates of replacement of basic vocabulary items (from the 100-item Swadesh list) over four specific checkpoints in the history of the Chinese language: Early Old Chinese (as represented by documents such as The Book of Songs), Classic Old Chinese, Late Middle Chinese (represented by the language of The Record of Linji), and Modern Chinese. After a concise explication of the applied methodology and a detailed presentation of the data, it is shown that the average rates of replacement between each of these checkpoints do not significantly deviate from each other and are generally compatible with the classic «Swadesh constant» of 0.14 loss per millennium; furthermore, these results correlate with other similar observed situations, e.g. for the Greek language, though not with others (Icelandic). It is hoped that future similar studies on the lexical evolution of languages with attested written histories will allow to place these observations into a more significant context.
The authors analyze the processes of Japan becoming an active participant of the world trade; identify cause-and-effect relations of the development of export and import of Japan. The authors point out the particular importance of the Asian market, which played an important role in the development of Japan as an exporter of industrial products and the development of the Japanese economy in the period from the “opening of the country” to the beginning of XX century.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.