Зона свободной торговли ЕАЭС-Вьетнам: первичный анализ эффектов торговой интеграции
The building of an increasingly integrated system from an economic point of view in the “Eurasian” space is a phenomenon superficially evaluated by that broad part of the Western literature which simply includes it in the general claim of Russia to win lost territories of the former Trsarist and Soviet Empires. It is therefore considered an almost pretentious project when analyzed from a purely geopolitical perspective rather than economic. Such kind of approach may, however, be short-sighted, in the absence of a detailed study of the complex roots or the historical, cultural and economic conditions justifying the integration on the former Soviet Union space, and in particular on the Eurasian one.
The present volume contains the contributions of experts from different disciplines with different sensitivity and national memberships. The hot confrontation between speakers from Ukraine, Poland and Lithuania on the one hand and Russia on the other seems to be constructive, a positive model of interaction between historically and geographically close worlds even if in a period of tough opposition.
This collection of papers comprises materials contributed for discussions at three international conferences held at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies, The Russian Academy of Sciences from 2010 through 2012. The collection consists of six sections covering the main areas of Vietnamese studies and touching upon various aspects of Vietnam’s internal and foreign policies as well as social and cultural life in the country during its long history.
This volume analyzes the evolution of geo-political and economic integration in the Eurasian area. The Eurasian integration is a growing phenomenon and the largest scale analysis proves necessary to avoid simplistic judgments based only on the geo-political approach. The editors of this publication present different profiles of integration, such as the geo-political and constitutional aspect, the relations with the European Union, migration issues, energy flows, the compatibility between the Eurasian and the WTO law, and the comparison with the European integration model. The book presents a wide range of viewpoints through essays of specialists from Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, Italy, France.
The article aims to conceptualize the economic model of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), to fi nd similarities with the European Union single market model, to identify critical remarks on the part of the EU, to estimate the perspectives of integration in a wide space from Lisbon to Vladivostok, Astana and Bishkek. The author comes to the following conclusions. 1) The EAEU complies with canons formed by the EU and is being built with due regard to the European integration experience. The common external tariff, the “four freedoms” of the internal market and principles of its organization – the prohibition of discrimination, harmonization, mutual recognition of standards, conformity mark, common sectoral policies, logic of neofunctionalism – all these regulation elements are present in both models. 2) Russia considers cooperation with the EU as positive, because it has gained regulation methods for the traditionally controlled market and strengthened its global position due to this cooperation. 3) The EU makes a signifi cant indirect impact on the Eurasian integration through criticism and expansion of peculiar approaches. Part of the criticism is of temporary or politicized character. 4) The EAEU has a strong starting idea – common history, common genetics and the need to preserve achievements in exploration and development of the vast Eurasian space. 5) An opportunity for interaction between the EU and the EAEU derives from the convergence of regulatory systems. However, high degree of state participation in economies of the EAEU countries, which distinguishes the Eurasian model from the European one and has become an irritant in the EU–EAEU relations, will continue to hinder “the integration of integrations”.
Sustainable development is an important concept for modern policymakers. To encourage people and businesses to act more responsibly and work towards sustainability, the states may introduce the tax incentives aimed respectively – at achievement certain goals in technological, ecological and social areas. EAEU Member States – Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia – adopted some tax measures which may be described as aimed at sustainable development, mostly in respect of personal development, R&D and their implementation. However, the paper shows that the efficiency of these measures is inconclusive, as the indicators in respective areas change differently than could be expected based solely on tax measures.
In this article the author performs the comparative analysis of the provisions of international treaties forming the Eurasian Economic Union and its predecessors and of the documents containing national tax policies of EAEU Member States. While author’s previous research suggested a number of similar features of EAEU Member States’ tax systems and partial harmonization, this time it is supplemented with conclusion of open tax competition waged by certain EAEU Member States.
This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative. This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to trans- port and logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slowdown and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of northwest China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capac- ity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of allegedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen industrial co- operation among neighbouring countries to develop new economic clusters. Third, the EEU and the Silk Road may become the basis for more ambitious cooperation in greater Eurasia, which may transform into a new centre of economic develop- ment at the global level.
The article is devoted to the Asia-Pacifi c Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum to be held and presided by the Russian Federation in early September 2012 in Vladivostok. The article gives the background for establishing the APEC, describes its goals and decisions adopted. It defi nes the APEC's place in the global economy as the largest association of States, which accounts for more than half of global GDP and which has set ambitious targets for establishing a free trade zone, liberalizing the investment climate and promoting regional integration. The article examines the major events in the global energy sector that triggered off the structural energy crisis in the early XXI century, causing the need for ensuring a global international energy security. The author suggests that the issue of energy security as a factor in implementing the strategic objectives of the APEC's economic and social development should be put on the agenda of the Forum. In this connection, the article analyzes the Draft Convention on Ensuring International Energy Security proposed by the Russian Federation for discussion and possible adoption. The article also puts forward several proposals for deepening regional integration to promote the development of the Far East and Siberia, and the creation of a new export base and promoting the Eastern vector of the Russian foreign economic cooperation policy.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.