Designing social innovation: planning, building, evaluating
Based on the best applied research presented at the 18th meeting of the International Association of People-Environment Studies, IAPS18 held in Vienna, this volume concentrates on theories and methods in planning and monitoring, environmental, health and social impact assessment, post-occupancy evaluations (POEs), computer modelling and various simulation tools. It is thus a fascinating and up-to-date review for researchers, professional practitioners, and policy makers.
Relationships between foundations and the government in the United States have long been difficult with government attitudes ranging from hostile to at best indifferent in the past. American foundations have long claimed innovation as a distinctive function to perform in society in order to preserve their legitimacy. One hundred years after the rise of the large-scale American philanthropic foundation, however, the relationships between foundations and government have come into flux. Between demands from fiscally-strapped local governments and a new openness of state and federal governments to develop collaborative relationships, a variety of public-philanthropic partnerships have emerged that question the traditional roles and distribution of labor between philanthropy and the state. This article traces the historical development of the government/foundation relationship and discusses its changing nature using recession-induced ad hoc partnerships, the emergence of foundation liaison offices, and the Obama Administration’s Social Innovation Fund and Investing in Innovation program as examples.
Social innovation is key to improving the territories, especially in developing countries. This paper analyzes the elements of local knowledge that facilitate the generation of social innovations in the case of the Municipal District of Quito (DMQ). Local knowledge is analyzed in three dimensions: human, structural and relational. It is shown that all of them are a source of social innovations, being at the base of the organizational reform, territorial structure, the digital agenda and the process of diffusion of these innovations to other territories.
Relationships between foundations and the government in the United States have long been difficult with government attitudes ranging from hostile to at best indifferent in the past. American foundations have long claimed innovation as a distinctive function to perform in society in order to preserve their legitimacy. One hundred years after the rise of the large-scale American philanthropic foundation, however, the relationships between foundations and government have come into flux. Between demands from fiscally-strapped local governments and a new openness of state and federal governments to develop collaborative relationships, a variety of public-philanthropic partnerships have emerged that question the traditional roles and distribution of labor between philanthropy and the state. This paper traces the historical development of the government/foundation relationship and discusses its changing nature using recession-induced ad hoc partnerships, the emergence of foundation liaison offices, and the Obama Administration’s Social Innovation Fund and Investing in Innovation program as examples.
Social innovation is the application of new solutions to social problems in areas such as welfare, health, education, youth unemployment, adaptation of migrants, and territorial integration of regions. Social innovations allow non-profits and other organizations to meet needs of society more effectively than existing options, respond to social challenges, offer new solutions to social problems, develop social interaction and create alliances. There are different types of social innovations. Most commonly the distinction is between product or service innovations and process innovations.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of how two types of informal social networks – those related with instrumental purposes of information sharing and those related with expressive purposes of interpersonal trust – impact teachers’ job satisfaction.
Design/methodology/approach This paper utilises social network analysis (SNA) degree and betweenness measures and job satisfaction scales from the Job Diagnostic Survey to collect longitudinal data from employees in one of the vocational schools in Saint Petersburg, Russia via structured interviews. Data on a total of 354 ties were analysed for 40 ego networks in 2018 and 33 ego networks in 2019.
Findings The obtained results partially confirm the positive effect of teachers’ position in instrumental and expressive networks on job satisfaction. More centrally positioned teachers were more satisfied with peers and colleagues. They fell more secure in regards to job security, given the unique and multi-faceted knowledge they possess. Structural diversity of the network, as well as the category of a teacher (core subject or vocational subject), are found to explain the uneven evolvement of network size. The authors argue that the decrease in network size can be treated as a positive externality of changes in an informal network. The variation in teachers' experience seems to explain both job satisfaction and network composition.
Research limitations The paper is based on a case study and its findings are limited to one particular organization. Nonetheless, the proposed SNA application is of potential value for similar organisations in terms of enhancing their capacity to benefit from networks. This study utilizes a structured interview to collect network data and job satisfaction data. However, overt observation or secondary data on written communication (e-mail, reports) may provide additional insights about the sought impact in the context of school.
Practical implications Both teachers and managers benefit from the results of the paper. Educational policymakers and schools' administration can exploit the bird's eye view on an organization that SNA provides. By identifying focal employees and their attitude towards school, one receives an opportunity to prevent structural holes, organizational conflicts and uneven distribution of workload. Novice teachers can nurture their well-being by enhancing personal and instrumental social networks at the start of their career. Experienced teachers benefit from social cooperation as it fosters the exchange of experience and skills, which is vital for job retention.
Originality/value This research extends our understanding of the role of different kinds of social networks in teachers’ job satisfaction. The article provides new insights into the SNA application to vocational schools and developing economies. Authors address teachers’ informal networks both from ego and complete network analyses to provide the holistic, yet detailed view. The use of longitudinal data advances the understanding of how personal and group networks develop over time.
Modern political science faces significant challenges in methodology, positioning, and disciplinary reproduction. Virtually all of these challenges (both internalist and externalist) are due to the reduction of the methodology of political science to the positivist paradigm. Examples of concepts of political culture, democratic transit, hybrid regimes, post-secularity, political will are a demonstration of the positivist paradigm weaknesses. The positivist methodological orientation dominance gives such the cost in political science as both in the reduction of the scientific explanation to the evaluative categorization and in the elimination from the subject of consideration of the actual political subject and his will. Answers to these challenges suggest systematization of the interdisciplinary narrative of political knowledge. It is necessary to expand the methodological horizon of the analysis of political reality. Such expansion is possible on the interdisciplinary approach basis, which is specified in this work as fixing and disclosing the poly-narrative content of political knowledge. The dynamics of political reality is revealed through the procedure (algorithm, technology) of the generation of a phenomenon or concept with the help of narratives, the corresponding formulation of factology, theoretical constructs and the goals of political reality analysis. In turn, the history of the generation procedure, taking into account the social forces game reveal the individual nature of political phenomena. In this regard, it becomes clear that the key role for modern political science is precisely the validity of the goals pursued, problem orientation, i. e. “expediency” of the planned or carried out the activity. The criterion of science is not in the methods, but in solving the problem, which is guaranteed by the adequacy of the methods used. The proposed approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing and explaining the political processes dynamics, the role of specific political forces, socio-cultural and personal factors in them.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th Conference on Electronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges in Eurasia, EGOSE 2019, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in November 2019
The paper considers the results of the study of the relationship between economic attitudes and life values on the sample of Nenets nationality. The sample includes 105 people of Nenets nationality aged of 17 – 73 years. An extended version of S. Schwartz PVQ-R questionnaire is used for the diagnostics of life values. The Questionnaire of Economic Attitudes by O.S. Deineka and E.V. Zabelina was used to identify economic attitudes. The results of correlation analysis reveal the relationship of life values with such economic attitudes of Nenets as the value of independent economic achievements, financial literacy, activity and rationality in banking sphere, awareness of consumer irrationality. Harsh climatic conditions and limitations in the consumer sphere shape the needs for safety, benevolence, self-reliance in thinking and behavior, which in turn affect the recognition of the value of independent economic achievements, rationality in consumption, positive attitude towards entrepreneurs, lack of readiness to invest and work at the expense of own health. The results can be a basis for the development of financial literacy programs for the small indigenous peoples of the Russian Arctic.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.