Психология : учебник и практикум для СПО
The paper proposes a cultural-historical periodisation of V. P. Zinchenko's life and activity, presenting an integral outline of his interests and his diverse contributions to contemporary science and culture. The principal aspects of V.P. Zinchenko's creative approach to science are described in comparison with encyclopaedic approach of the Renaissance era. The paper also presents a view of his original philosophic and psychological system set against the backdrop of the 20-21st century human sciences, and its more specific aspects, including his developments of the activity theory in general psychology, and his systemic psychological theories describing the interactions between image and action, intelligence and emotion, consciousness and reflexive activity, creativity and intuition. V.P. Zinchenko's scientific works can be characterised as a union of fundamental research and its practical implementation in the fields of systems engineering and management, ergonomics and design, pedagogy and education, literature and culture.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.