Sachunterricht. Fundstücke aus der Wissenschaftsgeschichte
The article discusses recent development of the theoretical research programs within sociology of science. We analyze the similarities and differences between sociology of science, science of sciences and scientometrics. Social studies of science (STS) during 1970–1980th are shown as an alternative to the interdisciplinary project of science of science.х годов представлены как альтернатива междисциплинарному проекту науковедения.
The conversation revolves around the historical epistemology as a special branch of the history of science, which has been largely influenced by Hans-Jörg Rheinberger and his team at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin. Apart from the discussion of the idea of historical epistemology, its position among the historical disciplines and the implications it has for science policy, what is also considered is experiment as a basic unit of science.
My talk examines the history of the institutionalization of the new Sociology of Scientific Knowledge as well the process of its Research Program formation in the context of the external factors and academic systems transformation. Analysis of the Social History of Sociology of Science at 1970-80s shows this discipline "reboot" and the 57 door opened for new people with new ideas which caused the transformation of external intellectual climate (Zeitgeist) into a new methodology of studying of manufacture of Scientific Knowledge.
The paper discusses some issues of selection, comparison and evaluation of relevant methodology for scientific knowledge dynamics analysis. Postpositivist metatheoretical discourse within sociological theory has been predominantly concerned with contrasting approaches to science studies? developed by Kuhn and Lakatos with some sociological projects (Mullins, Bloor, Foucault) . "Theoretical research programs" methodology suggested/elaborated by Berger, Zelditch and Wagner provides us with many benefits and advanced features instrumental demonstration of which can be demonstrated when applied to a history of sociology of science. "Theoretical research programs" methodology responds to questions of theory evaluation, way they are clustering, social and rational aspects of their development and indicators/empirical evidence of theory progress.
Policy instrument of research productivity assessment (Research Assessment Exercise, RAE), introduced in the UK by Thatcherite government, usually is discussed as a prototype of neoliberal reforms which took place in the university sector of European countries in 1980 – 2000s. Research and financial efficiency of the sector was declared as the main goal of these reforms. Promotion of market-based instruments and emphasis on the open competition inside the university sector were basic policy principles which influenced the design of RAE. Study of RAE practices and consequences was conducted in the framework of broader project, focused on the systems of university management. The basic data source of the study were (1) interview with UK social scientists, who had significant experience of both academic and administrative work, and (2) official documents, produced in the course of RAE companies.
This paper examines the history of the institutionalization of the new Sociology of Science (STS) both as a Research Program within Sociology of Science and as an intellectual Social Movement. The analysis of the interaction between Social and Rational contexts been made from Internalism vs Externalism points of view. By the intersection of the outer and inner stories in case of Sociology of Science 1970-80th we indicate the reconfiguration of young scholars everyday beliefs about Science and institution of Society in institutional contexts of their methodological developments what made contemporary STS a “Playful” Theory .