The aims of this paper are to show the historical context of circumpolar co-operation with the focus on some of the most successfull frameworks of collaboration; to describe new geopolitical imperatives in the Arctic that, on the one hand, challenge the existing transnational connections and, on the other, provide new context and content for colloboration; to emphasize the role and efforts of Arctic universities in making the Circumpolar North an international educational and research space. Universities with a strong international agenda can play a significant role in developing Northern dimension policies through initiating, organizing and co-ordinating educational and reasearch projects and events. Some best practicies of international co-operation of Arctic universities are described with the main emphasis on the Arctic Floating University, a regular Arctic expedition organazid by Northern (Arctic) Federal University in Russia.
Spatial ability (SA) is known to be closely related to mathematical ability (Tosto et al., 2014). Maths anxiety (MA) has been shown to affect both mathematical and spatial ability (Maloney, 2011). The present study investigated the relationship between maths performance and spatial ability, as well as the effects of MA and gender on the association between them. General cognitive ability and trait anxiety were added as control variables. Data were collected from 146 twins (32% males) aged 17-33. Maths performance was measured with Problem Verification Task (PVT). SA was measured with Mental rotation task. MA was measured with sMARS questionnaire. General cognitive ability was measured with Raven's matrices. Trait anxiety was measured with Spielberger anxiety rating scale. There were no correlations between SA and maths performance, except a negative correlation between SA and PVT reaction time variance. MA did not moderate the association between SA and maths performance. Interestingly, the interaction term between trait anxiety and SA was significant as a predictor for PVT reaction time. Posthoc analysis showed that higher spatial ability was associated with lower reaction time in PVT for high trait anxiety individuals only. Neither main effects of gender and maths anxiety, nor the interaction term between them were significant while predicting spatial ability. Altogether, our results indicate that the interplay between anxiety and mathematical cognition is complex and requires further research.
The authors examine how the social status of the university professor has evolved in Russia in recent centuries in light of the historical concepts about the enslavement and emancipation of social groups proposed by Sergey Solovyov and Aleksandr Gradovsky. They use the metaphor of the “slave” [nevol’nik] to describe the dependent position of the professor in the university. The word encapsulates administrative tyranny, the spread of subordinate and submissive mentality in the university environment, and the curtailment of opportunities for professional selffulfillment. The authors present the university administration as the main agent responsible for enslaving professors. Administrators represent bureaucratic power and act to advance their own social ambitions.
Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is frequently used to index individual differences in decision-making under uncertainty, particularly in atypical (clinical) populations. However, it is rarely analyzed as a learning task, and research on the predictors of performance on the IGT in normative populations is scarce. Here, we focused on tolerance and intolerance for uncertainty as two traits that could potentially influence subjects’ IGT performance. Using mixed modeling analysis of longitudinal experimental data (n=60, 5 blocks) we showed that tolerance for uncertainty predicted the initial level of risk in IGT as manifested in the proportion of “bad decks” chosen; at the same time, intolerance for uncertainty predicted explorative learning in IGT as manifested in the number of deck switches after a loss and its decline over the course of the experiment. The results are discussed in the context of viewing IGT as capturing a set of dynamic decision making processes that rely on learning, risk taking, and exploration.
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation
This article presents the up-to-date views on the continuous education and the tendencies to business-education development. The learning during the whole life is the vital necessity of our days. The peculiarity of the continuous education consists in the way of the payment for it. It can be payed by the organization which is interested in the improvement of the professional skills of the employees or by the employees themselves, if they participate in the continuous education program. In the framework of this logic the business -education is some special field of the continuous education. Now days business-education and continuous education are some definite system.
An experimental approach was created for the comparative investigation of the cognitive abilities of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in their natural habitat. The territoriality of gulls during the breeding period and the fact that the gulls inhabiting the territory of the Komandorsky Reserve are practically not in fear of humans allowed us to work with individually recognized birds directly at their nest sites inside the colony. The possibility of using this approach to investigate their cognitive abilities was demonstrated on 24 gulls, in particular, to investigate their abilities for relative size generalization. The first experiment illustrated that the gulls are able to learn to discriminate two pairs of stimuli according to the feature: 'larger' or 'smaller'. They were then given a test to transfer the discriminative rule in which novel combinations of the same stimuli were used. The gulls successfully coped with only a few of these tests. In the next experiment the birds were taught to discriminate four pairs of similar stimuli. The majority of the birds coped with the tests to transfer the discriminative rule both to the novel combinations of familiar stimuli, and also to the novel stimuli of the familiar category (items of different colour and shape). However, none of the birds transferred the discriminative rule to stimuli of a novel category (sets differing by number of components). Thus, in their ability to generalize at a preconceptual level gulls are more comparable with pigeons, whereas large-brained birds (crows and parrots), are capable of concept formation.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.