СЕМЬЯ И СОВРЕМЕННЫЙ СОЦИУМ
The formulation of the first scientific theories of the evolution of nature began at least two centuries ago. However, the philosophical roots of evolutionary ideas are much older (see, e.g., Vorontsov 1999; Asmus 2001; Chanyshev 1976, 2001; Barg 1987; Ilyushechkin 1996; Losev 1977; Nisbet 1980). An incipient understanding of the historical dimension of natural processes can already be found among the ancient Greeks (e.g., Heraclitus, Anaximander, Empedocles, etc.). In the late Modern period these ideas strengthened in conjunction with the idea that historical changes in nature can be described with the aid of rigorous laws. This type of thinking created the evolutionary approach in science. However, these ideas penetrated rather slowly in various branches of science. Nevertheless, supported by a growing body of firm evidence, the evolutionary approach became gradually established during this period in geology, cosmology, biology and social sciences.
We propose two models of social segregation inspired by the Schelling model. Agents in our models are nodes of evolving social networks. The total number of social connections of each node remains constant in time, though may vary from one node to the other. The first model describes a “polychromatic” society, in which colors designate different social categories of agents. The parameter μ favors/disfavors connected “monochromatic triads,” i.e., connected groups of three individuals within the same social category, while the parameter ν controls the preference of interactions between two individuals from different social categories. The polychromatic model has several distinct regimes in (μ,ν)-parameter space. In ν-dominated region, the phase diagram is characterized by the plateau in the number of the intercolor connections, where the network is bipartite, while in μ-dominated region, the network looks as two weakly connected unicolor clusters. At μ>μcrit and ν>νcrit two phases are separated by a critical line, while at small values of μ and ν, a gradual crossover between the two phases occurs. The second “colorless” model describes a society in which the advantage or disadvantage of forming small fully connected communities (short cycles or cliques in a graph) is controlled by a parameter γ. We analyze the topological structure of a social network in this model and demonstrate that above a critical threshold, γ+>0, the entire network splits into a set of weakly connected clusters, while below another threshold, γ−<0, the network acquires a bipartite graph structure. Our results propose mechanisms of formation of self-organized communities in international communication between countries, as well as in crime clans and prehistoric societies.
In this paper are studied the problems of legal development in the modern societies. This development is examined in the perspective of globalization and modernisation which lead the lawyers to the new understanding of communicative and social dimension of law. In author’s opinion, the contemporary theory of law needs a new approach to law which takes into account social possibilities of the interhuman behaviour and the social reality of law. Introducing such a theory implies a self-referent, operative and normative integrity of law and of the legal communication
The purpose of this paper is to encourage discussions regarding the existing approaches to globalization measurement (taking mainly the form of indices and rankings) and their shortcomings in terms of applicability to developing Global Studies curricula. Another aim is to propose an outline for the globalization measurement methodology that would take a systemic approach to revealing the global flows (both their direction and content) and networks, which will allow the multidimensionality in globalization measurement crucial for proposing and verifying formal explanations and hypotheses, as well as for developing globalization forecasts.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.