Российская наука в цифрах
The article is devoted to the professional career in the field of science and technology in terms of changes in its models and influence of factors of social context. This article reviews the ideas and principles of sustainable development, oriented to long-term and humanistic goals, in conjunction with interdisciplinary approaches to the study of careers. It is shown that measurement of career associated with the understanding of coherence and duration in time of the relation (character continuity) of these periods, depending on the external environment, attainability as a possibility of assessing success and development of professional status. Conclusions in the article relate to methodological approaches to the infrastructure of a professional career at various levels, taking into account the capabilities and limitations and factors influencing the formation of ideas about the stages of a scientific career, the indicators of success, efficiency and achievements. A favourable social context becomes the basic condition for long-term and consistent career as a way of accumulation of knowledge, expertise, resources, social ties and status positions.
Scientific and technological advances have always affected international relations. While in the middle of the 20th century it was the nuclear revolution that had a significant impact on the international structure, in the beginning of the 21st century the information revolution plays such a role. Scientists predict that in the forthcoming decades, world politics will be affected by breakthroughs in nano- and biotechnologies, as well as information technologies and the exploration of new sources of energy. Following E. Skolnikoff, the authors believe that the impact of science and technology on international affairs may be classified as operating through one of four main mechanisms: 1) changing the architecture of the international system: its structure, its organizing concepts, and the relations among its actors; 2) changing the processes by which the international system operates, including diplomacy, war, administration, commerce, communications; 3) creating new issue areas, new constraints and trade-offs in the operational environment of foreign policy, not only political constraints on international action, but also constraints imposed by the laws of natural and social science; 4) providing a source of changed perceptions, information and transparency for the operation of the international system, and of new concepts and ideas for international relations theory. In addition to understanding the influence of scientific and technological discoveries on the world of political processes, the article identifies risks and threats associated with the development of science and technologies, as well as the main areas of international cooperation in this field, while also looking at the economic dimension of scientific and technological processes. Particular attention is paid to the information component of the modern global scientific and technological sphere. In conclusion, the authors dwell on the role and place of Russia in the global innovation process.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.