КАК ВЫБИРАЛА РОССИЯ – 2016. РЕЗУЛЬТАТЫ МОНИТОРИНГА ИЗБИРАТЕЛЬНОГО ПРОЦЕССА
Up to the 2002 electoral reform the performance of political parties in Russia's regional legislative elections was poor. According to the federal law introduced this reform, all Russian regions since December 2003 have been obliged to elect no less than a half of the members of their assemblies by proportional representation. As a result, party competition at the regional level became unavoidable. These circumstances gave a good opportunity to study factors of party fragmentation in the entities of the Russian Federation. The study tested three kinds of hypotheses dealing with institutional, sociological and political effects. Analysis based on general sample of elections held in Russian regions since 2003 to 2013 shows that only political effects were robust through the time of observation. Party system fragmentation in Russian entities was systematically deprived by influential regional executive incumbents, federal authorities as well as was connected to the type of regional political regime.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
the anti-modrenization trend will become the main feature of the country's political regime for the immediate future - this trend dooms the regime for stagnation, making any attempts at technocratic renewal futile. In order to keep the situation under control, the regime will inevitably resort to greater, most likely pre-emptive, and therefore disproportional repression, which will further exacerabate political conflict.
The chapter is devoted to the peculiarities of the Russian system of political parties. Russia has unique but exceedingly weak party system. The system is weak in terms of the political influence of the parties and the general absence of “thick” local party organisational networks. In the majority of the country’s 85 regions, there are few local, active party organisations, with the exception of the short periods of election campaigning. Instead, the parties are very dependent on the state organs. Moreover, the federal and regional parliaments have little effective power Russia has unique but exceedingly weak party system. The system is weak in terms of the political influence of the parties and the general absence of “thick” local party organisational networks. In the majority of the country’s 85 regions, there are few local, active party organisations, with the exception of the short periods of election campaigning. Instead, the parties are very dependent on the state organs. Moreover, the federal and regional parliaments have little effective power
This article discusses the following insufficiently explored question: what are the immediate and long-term effects of the regional electoral reform of 2003 on regional majoritarian electoral systems and the composition of the plural components of regional legislatures? The article analyzes the transformations related to the number of deputies elected in districts with majoritarian systems before and after the reform and changes in their election process (in the first place, modifications of the systems in the districts). It demonstrates how electoral systems have influenced factors contributing to the success of candidates in elections and the campaign strategies of the candidates in single-mandate districts; it shows those politicians who reached favorable outcomes in elections, and those who ended up left out of regional politics. The article discusses the increased role of federal parties in the regions, and how this contributed to the increasing dependence of regional politicians on the federal government.