The Palgrave Handbook of Women and Gender in Twentieth-Century Russia and the Soviet Union
This handbook brings together recent and emerging research in the broad areas of women and gender studies focusing on pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and the post-Soviet Russian Federation. For the Soviet period in particular, individual chapters extend the geographic coverage of the book beyond Russia itself to examine women and gender relations in the Soviet ‘East’ (Tatarstan), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania). Within the boundaries of the Russian Federation, the scope moves beyond the typically studied urban centres of Moscow and St Petersburg to examine the regions (Krasnodar, Novosibirsk), rural societies and village life. Its chapters examine the construction of gender identities and shifts in gender roles during the twentieth century, as well as the changing status and roles of women vis-a-vis men in Soviet political institutions, the workplace and society more generally. This volume draws on a broad range of disciplinary and methodological approaches currently being employed in the academic field of Russian studies. The origins of the individual contributions can be identified in a range of conventional subject disciplines – history, literature, sociology, political science, cultural studies – but the chapters also adopt a cross- and inter-disciplinary approach to the topic of study. This handbook therefore builds on and extends the foundations of Russian women’s and gender studies as it has emerged and developed in recent decades, and demonstrate the international, indeed global, reach of such research.
Claimed since the first years of the Soviet regime, the equality of men and women in the issue of professional occupation affected the development of polar sciences in the USSR, which previously had been primarily male’s field. The chapter explores the role of women in Soviet Arctic and Antarctic exploration in 1930s- 1960s by focusing on professional careers of two distinguished female polar researchers: marine geologist Maria Klenova and northern architect Tatiana Rimskaya-Korsakova. The analysis of two different biographies elucidates how female experts in the field of Soviet Northern researches built individual strategies in their professional life, what were particular constrains and possible advantages, how they and their contemporaries reflect on their experience.
oaches, both in his speech and in subsequent policy initiatives. Concern about the family and the birth rate is not new; the so-called demographic crisis emerged periodically throughout the Soviet era. There are, however, enormous changes in the ways it has been tackled in different historical periods. This chapter starts with a discussion of these varying approaches, and then looks in more detail at Putin’s understanding of the causes of the demographic problem, how he has attempted to resolve it, and how this fits in with his broader understanding of the family and gender relations in Russia. In Soviet times there were no reliable sources which could tell us how women themselves viewed these subjects, but this is no longer the case. We have carried out a ‘netnographic’ study—an analysis of discussions on internet sites—to discern how important the family and children are for women in post-Soviet Russia, how they explain their decision whether or not to have children, and how their attitudes differ from those of women in the late Soviet era.