2014-2015 годы: экономический кризис – социальное измерение
The main focus of this article is analyzing the peculiarities and dynamics of socio-economic inequality in modern Russia. Examined are the changes in Russian people’s attitudes towards this multilateral and painful social issue, which are dictated by shifts both in objective reality and the way it is perceived by the general population. Analysis is based on data from «Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey» (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that uneven distribution of income and accumulated wealth in post-Soviet Russia has become ever so dramatic. Meanwhile, like in most other countries of the world, a huge and constantly increasing and accelerating concentration of capital in the hands of a slim segment of the richest people is evident. These processes decrease the eff ectiveness of previously accepted criteria and indexes of socio-economic inequality, which leads to the need for fi ner adjustment of said instruments. Those who suff ered the most from a series of economic crises and stagnation, occurring throughout the period between 2008 and 2016, are those who belong to quite prosperous segments of the population, those which form the backbone of the middle-class. A decrease in the amount of wealthy households during the last crisis was accompanied by an increase in the amount of poor families, which became one of the reasons for an increase in the population’s dissatisfaction with their material status. Dramatic socioeconomic inequality remains the most prominent factor which forms inequality of opportunity when it comes to various population groups’ access to education, health-care and other social resources. However, unlike the 1990’s, when negative attitudes towards private property and rich people were dominant in Russian society, today we see a more moderate tolerance level towards socio-economic inequality.
The article examines the main dimensions of regional social assistance programmes and their current transformations. The analysis covers the Russian regions since the mid-2010s in the context of budget constraints and federal legislative incentives. The study includes twenty-one regions different in their economic and demographic conditions, as well as their budget capacity and levels of debt. The analysis is based on data on changes in regional-level social assistance policy from January 2014 to October 2017. This database is comprised of over 400 regional regulatory acts in this field. It is argued that, for this period, social assistance programmes tend to become more selective and targeting through the implementation of increased requirements and restrictions, as well as through the abolition of some welfare benefits and beneficiaries’ categories. These transformations disadvantage families with children most of all, especially those with many children. Pensioners are also negatively affected in this regard. At the same time social assistance of families with disabled children and couples who adopt is still of high priority on the regional level. Alongside changes aimed at reducing the number of beneficiaries, in half of the regions the public authorities have withdrawn the annual upward adjustments of welfare payments in line with inflation. Although some expansive decisions accompany the restrictive ones in most cases, they are of less importance for the beneficiaries. The budget conditions of a given regions only partly determine the intensity of institutional transformation. For example, the prevalence of a more conservative social assistance agenda is also a factor in institutional transformation. Thus, differences in the political specifics for each region also account for varying social welfare trends and priorities.
This article is dedicated to studying the condition and characteristics of Russian youths’ behavior in the labor market during economic crisis. The analysis is based on data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey — Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE). It is revealed that the negative aftermath of the economic crisis, as well as expectations for the further decline of the economic situation, has undermined youths’ confidence in the labor market. They find themselves in an especially vulnerable position when enterprises shut down or in the case of job cuts. Opportunities for finding a job in the field of secondary employment have narrowed out, and there has been an increase in the amount of young people who are willing to work without signing an employment contract, who are ready to accept unfavorable working conditions. There is an acute sensation of incongruity between the demand for qualified workforce and those specialties which young people receive at higher educational facilities and secondary schools. The crisis has not only exacerbated many of the problems which young people face in the labor market, but it also has stimulated growth in the activity of young Russians when it comes to overcoming emerging troubles, not to mention it increased their interest in utilizing irregular means of material provision.
Based on a representative survey of 300 manufacturing enterprises, as well as on the dataset collected by the authors and containing information on the status and main economic indicators of the analyzed companies, the paper discusses the influence of organizational social capital on the survival of Russian industrial enterprises during the economic crisis. Three indicators here measured the organizational social capital, i.e. relations between managers and employees: trust, the degree of formality of relations, and cooperation between managers and employees. The paper concludes that only the level of cooperation between managers and employees measured by the responses of workers positively influenced the chances of survival of an industrial enterprise during a crisis, while the trust and the level of formality of relations turned out to be insignificant in a Russian setting.
This article is focused on the media construction of the recent economic crisis in Russia.
The goal of the study is achieved conducting the content analysis. 285 articles of the most cited Russian online newspapers of different information orientation (socio-political, business and mass online newspapers) were analyzed in total.
It was found that the coverage of the economic crisis in online newspapers is due to the focus on a specific audience. The socio-political newspaper publishes more articles on alternatives of ways out of the crisis and stabilization of the economy. The business media, focused on business leaders, analysts and experts, tend to cover such crisis consequence as change in the situation of the Russian industry and the private sector. Finally, the hallmark of the mass newspaper is anti-crisis advice to the public and partnership materials.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.