The Politics of Commercial Treaties in the Eighteenth Century. Balance of Power, Balance of Trade. Ed. A. Alimento, K. Stapelbroek. Palgrave Macmillan. 2017.
This book is the first study that analyses bilateral commercial treaties as instruments of peace and trade comparatively and over time. The work focuses on commercial treaties as an index of the challenges of eighteenth-century European politics, shaping a new understanding of these challenges and of how they were confronted at the time in theory and diplomatic practice. From the middle of the seventeenth century to the time of the Napoleonic wars bilateral commercial treaties were concluded not only at the end of large-scale wars accompanying peace settlements, but also independently with the aim to prevent or contain war through controlling the balance of trade between states. Commercial treaties were also understood by major political writers across Europe as practical manifestations of the wider intellectual problem of devising a system of interstate trade in which the principles of reciprocity and equality were combined to produce sustainable peaceful economic development.
The book undertakes to assess whether political realism as an International Relations theory still helps us to understand the foreign policies of key European actors. The contributors ask whether foreign policy actors in Europe understand the international system and behave as realists. They ask what drives their behaviour, how they construct material capabilities and to what extent they see material power as the means to ensure survival in a post-Cold War context apparently marked by growing instability. The contributors use or contest realism in its different forms in order identify continuity or change in the foreign policy of key European actors.
Russia’s interventions in Ukraine and Syria are designed to force the U.S. to accept a new “grand bargain” about the future of world order. Drawing on bargaining theory, the article argues that any such bargain suffers from acute commitment problems. Russia cannot convince the U.S. that there are limits to its revisionism, while the U.S. is unable to reassure Russia that it won’t renege on any agreements as Russian power declines. President Donald Trump has hinted at détente. But as long as these underlying commitment problems remain unresolved, the two sides will continue their slide towards a new Cold War.
La parution du premier tome de la correspondance de Catherine II et Friedrich Melchior Grimm vient couronner une entreprise de longue haleine dirigée par Sergueï Karp, l’édition critique des lettres échangées entre 1764 à 1796 par l’impératrice russe avec le directeur de la Correspondance littéraire. Les lettres contenues dans ce volume sont en effet précieuses pour éclairer les relations entre l’Impératrice et le milieu philosophique et artistique. Durant toute cette période, Grimm – auquel la souveraine s’adresse avec familiarité sur le mode de la conversation, en un français parfois truffé de remarques en allemand – circule une grande partie du temps entre la Russie, les Provinces- Unies, l’Italie, puis de nouveau la Russie, la Suède et le Danemark avant de revenir en France à la fin de l’année 1777. Il s’affirme de plus en plus comme « un intermédiaire essentiel dans les relations culturelles » de Catherine II avec l’Occident, particulièrement dans le domaine des arts, se chargeant de traiter avec les artistes, les intermédiaires et les marchands, à Paris et à Rome, pour le compte de la tsarine.
The present paper contains a description of main stages of evolution of commerce. Advantages and inconveniences of each form of commerce are analyzed. Main directions of evolution of commerce are described.
According to the current concept of foreign policy of the Russian Federation, soft power should take an important place in the foreign policy strategy of the Russian Federation. Meanwhile, at the present stage, thinking, both Russian political circles that adopt foreign policy decisions, and the Russian expert-scientific community's views on the soft influence in international relations, contain a number of conceptual flaws. These flaws do not allow an objective and relevant analysis of the possibility and prospects for the soft influence of the Russian Federation on the international arena. Proceeding from this, the article offers a genealogical analysis of the two most successful forms of soft influence - "soft power", which is a significant tool for pursuing US foreign policy and the "normative force of Europe," in which most of the foreign policy directions of the European Union are implemented. The analysis proposed in the article allows, firstly, identify the conceptual structure of both studied forms of soft power, and secondly, to compare these structures, which allows us to affirm the fundamental, quality genealogical uniqueness of each of the two forms of soft power in contemporary international relations. In addition, the analysis allows for a more conceptual approach to the problem of the possibility of Russia's soft influence, as well as to abandon the popular research focus on financing the soft influence of one or another participant in international relations.
The conflict in Ukraine and Russia's annexation of Crimea has undoubtedly been a pivotal moment for policy makers and military planners in Europe and beyond. Many analysts see an unexpected character in the conflict and expect negative reverberations and a long-lasting period of turbulence and uncertainty, the de-legitimation of international institutions and a declining role for global norms and rules. Did these events bring substantial correctives and modifications to the extant conceptualization of International Relations? Does the conflict significantly alter previous assumptions and foster a new academic vocabulary, or, does it confirm the validity of well-established schools of thought in international relations? Has the crisis in Ukraine confirmed the vitality and academic vigour of conventional concepts?
The article analyzes the Italian Republic foreign policy stance on the Syrian civil war. The internal and external factors affecting the official Rome foreign policy decision-making process examined. Particular attention in this context is paid to the effects of the global financial-economic crisis which converted Italy into one of the «sick counties» of the European Union.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.